The HFS Backup service at Oxford uses TSM client-server software to provide an up-to-date and complete backup of the current local filestore of your machine. The following steps assume that you have already registered for the service and obtained, installed and configured the TSM client software on your computer.
The procedure starts with the making of an initial backup of all the files on the local machine (i.e. the client machine) and subsequently making regular backups reflecting any changes to the filestore. This initial backup must be performed manually and must complete before running automatic scheduled backups. Subsequent backups can also be performed manually but our recommendation is to use the automated scheduled backup facilities and to supplement these with manual backups when required.
There are some general considerations regarding Backup and Restore that apply to all TSM client users, irrespective of their client platform. Please therefore read the next three sections ( 2 - 4 ) before reading the platform specific pages on how to use the TSM software.
2. File versions & types of manual backup
On the HFS at Oxford, the TSM server is configured to keep up to two copies of each file; a copy of the latest or current version and a copy of the previous version (if it existed). If a third (or subsequent) copy is made of the file, at the next backup the oldest copy held is deleted, the current one held becomes the oldest and the very latest becomes the current copy. If the file is deleted on the client machine some rules come into play saying how long the two copies will be retained on the HFS server. This depends on whether the client is a desktop/laptop or server - please see our section on data retention. In TSM terminology, the backup copy of the current version of a file is called the active version; the backup of the previous version is called the inactive version.
There are up to four types of manual backup available, some depending on the client operating system; the screen shot below is for the Windows client but is similar to the TSM interface on other client platforms :
3. The initial backup
Your initial backup of a machine newly registered to the HFS should be all of the following:
Your initial manual backup will essentially be a full backup of your entire local filestore. With disk capacity in a typical personal computer ranging from 10GB to 200GB and with those in departmental and college servers often being even larger, this can mean that your initial backup requirements are very large. This is particularly so if you have installed a large amount of software and/or data onto the machine prior to this backup. Network transfer rates vary: approximate maximum speeds are 30GB/hour on a 100Mb network and 300GB/hour on a 1Gb one, but such a speed can be reduced greatly by other factors such as other traffic on your local network and the speed of your machine's disk(s). Please try to estimate and allow sufficient time for this initial backup to complete while you are in attendance.
By default TSM will back up all the files on your machine, though there are a few exceptions - for these please see the HFS Policy Pages.
If the total amount of data does not exceed 100GB (for desktops/laptops), 200GB (for servers) or 300GB (for large servers), please go right ahead and start the first backup.
If the total amount of data to be backed up will exceed the daily limit then it will need to be staged (i.e. spread over a number of days). This is not difficult but some consideration needs to be given as to how best to proceed. If you are unfamiliar with the HFS backup service, it may be best to contact us at firstname.lastname@example.org in order to discuss the initial backup. There are some examples shown below for guidance:
In cases where the initial backup of a single large partition is being done in stages, it is very important that a manual full incremental backup is run over the entire partition before including this partition in the scheduled backup. That is, once the partition has been backed-up in stages, it should then be manually backed-up in it's entirety. This ensures that the backup has a completion date which is then used for processing of subsequent backups.
We have procedures in place that detect when a client has sent data in excess of the daily limit in a working day. The backup session will automatically be cancelled and the client account locked. Newly registered clients (those registered within the last 14 days) will be automatically unlocked to allow completion of the initial backup; this is done at 10:00 am the next day (2 pm for those clients on the server service). This is effective for the first 14 days after registering the account with the HFS service. When the next backup session is started, the backup carries on from the point at which it was stopped. The whole process usually takes just a few days and once completed, subsequent sessions will only backup files which are new or have changed since the last time. After the first 14 days since registration the lockout is effective until you contact us.
4. Restoring your data - considerations
4.1. Stop any backups while restoring.
If you are restoring any sizeable amount of data, you should disable any backups (scheduled or manual) from running until at least the restore has completed. Running a restore in conjunction with a backup will cause the two processes to slow considerably as they contend for your local machine's cpu and I/O bandwidth. Halting the backups also avoids the possible confusion of restored files being backed up and overwriting a previous version of a file backup. Once complete you should examine the files restored before reenabling any scheduled backups again.
Clearly certain circumstances which preceed a large partition or system restoration cannot be planned. However, if you are planning a system or hardware upgrade which will leave your data at risk, there are methods by which we can minimise the number of tape volumes upon which the data is held. Please contact us in advance of such an operation at email@example.com giving as much notice as possible of the planned upgrade and we will do what we can to help. Similarly, please let us know if you suffer a major disk failure and while you are waiting for a replacement, we may be able to help reduce the time needed for restore.
4.2. It may be quicker to restore from local software installation media
If you have the installation media for your software applications to hand, then it may well be quicker to re-install from these than restore from the HFS.
4.3. "I can't see old and/or deleted versions of a file in the restore window !"
You have just stumbled upon the difference between active and
inactive files. An active file is a file for which
a backup exists and the file currently resides on the local
machine. An inactive file is a file for which a backup exists
but which is no longer resident on the local machine. If you have
overwritten or deleted a file or folder, and subsequently run a full
incremental backup, TSM will mark the file or folder as
inactive. At a subsequent restore, TSM displays by default, only
active files in the Restore window. To display and restore your
inactive files and folders using the TSM GUI, open the Restore
window, select the
View menu and check the
active/inactive files] option. Using the Command Line Interface add the
-inactive option to your query. Please note that
inactive objects are only kept on the TSM server - and hence can
only be displayed - for a certain length of time after becoming
inactive according to the backup policy. This policy information is
available in our section on
4.4. Restoring complete partitions or filesystems
Restoring a complete data partition, with the exception of the 'root' or system partition, is as simple as restoring a single file or folder. Please see the sections headed 'Restoring Local Partitions' in the appropriate interface guide in the next section.
Restoration of the complete 'system' partition - i.e. the root partition on Linux machines, or the C: partition on Windows holds with it a number of complicating factors, not least the number of open system files that can or cannot be overwritten. Specific procedures need to be adopted for such a process to be succesfull. Necessarily, such procedures will be operating system (OS) platform specific - and will vary between OS releases. If you find yourself in a position of having to restore a system partition please contact us at firstname.lastname@example.org for more help and advice.
It should be understood that the HFS/TSM does not support a full network re-install capability and that a combination of re-installation of the OS, basic network configuration, followed by installation and configuration of the TSM client will be required before restoring any necessary files from the HFS. Another consideration is that the hardware base may change following a major problem and/or the OS requiremnents may change. For all of these reasons we would recommend contacting us in these circumstances.
5. Using TSM Backup & Restore on your client platform
For simplicity, usage of the TSM backup client software is grouped according to interface type and function. Please note that for Netware users the sole interface is the Command Line Client (CLI), there is no GUI interface available. Please also note that the GUI may be very slow when trying to display the contents of a very large and/or deeply-nested directory structure. In such circumstances the Command Line Interface may be quicker and more convenient to use. Each link below gives an introduction how to Backup and Restore files using that interface: