4. Coding your document

Like HTML, XML relies on elements to code up the document. If you are familiar with coding HTML files the transition to XML should be fairly painless. OUCS XML has many elements available for use, although in any one document only a subset of these will ever be applied. In this section we discuss the elements making up the body of a text.

4.1. Sectioning your text

Your text may be just a series of paragraphs, or these paragraphs may be grouped together into chapters, sections, subsections, etc. In the former case, each paragraph is embedded inside a the <p> element. In the latter case, the <body> may be divided into a series of <div> elements, which may be further subdivided. An example of div structure is shown below:

<div>  <head>This is my heading</head>  <p> This is a paragraph</p>  <div>   <head>This is my inner section heading</head>   <p> This is a paragraph in the inner section</p></div> <!--This div closes the inner section--></div> <!--This div formally closes entire section-->

Sectioning your document has important effects on the OUCS web site. Each div used is processed when the document is converted into html. Major divisions are treated as separate web pages and help to form the basis of the internal page navigation system. Each division is also sequentially numbered: 1, 2, 3 ... Where a div section is within another div, it is treated as a subsection and numbered accordingly e.g. 2.1, 2.2, 2.3....

Sectioning documents also influences the HTML output to browsers. The title of a document is always given the <h1> tag, major divisions are thus given the <h2> tag and minor section divisions are given <h3>, <h4>, <h5> etc. depending on how deep they are nested within the document.

Correct structural markup for documentation is important for accessibility. When documents are marked up in a structured way, they allow users of alternative technologies to discover the main sections and subsections more quickly and more easily. The structure allows users to jump from one section to another, without the need to read all of the information on the page. Documents that do not use structured markup pose a problem (to screen reader users in particular), as it is very difficult to find out what is on a page without reading all of the text. Where structural markup has not been used, the author has often employed styles (bold, italic, etc.) to indicate different sections and headings. While obvious to sighted readers, the structure is lost to screen reader users who must read the page to find out if it is of interest to them.

It is a requirement for authors to structure their documents in an accessible manner: relying on style alone is to be avoided as this results in inaccessible documents.

The following elements can be used to divide up your text:

<p>
marks paragraphs in prose.
<div>
contains a subdivision of the front, body, or back of a text.

When structural divisions smaller than a <div> are necessary, inner <div> elements may be used, without limit to the depth of nesting (see example above).

A div element can have the following three attributes:
type
This indicates the conventional name for this category of text division. Its value might be something like ‘Preface’.
id
This specifies a unique identifier for the division, which may be used for cross references or other links to it, such as a commentary. It is often useful to provide an id attribute for every major structural unit in a text, and to derive the id values in some systematic way, for example by appending a section number to a short code for the title of the work in question.
n
The n attribute specifies a mnemonic short name or number for the division, which can be used to identify it in preference to the id. If a conventional form of reference or abbreviation for the parts of a work already exists (such as the book/chapter/verse pattern of Biblical citations), the n attribute is the place to record it.
The attributes id and n, indeed, are so widely useful that they are allowed on any element in any TEI schema: they are global attributes.

The value of every id attribute must be unique within a document. They may be used to derive the names of HTML pages, so giving sensible mnemonic names is a good idea.

4.2. Headings and Closings

Every <div> may have a title or heading, and (less commonly) a closing such as ‘End of Chapter 1’. The following elements may be used to mark them up:
<head>
contains any heading, for example, the title of a section, or the heading of a list or glossary.
<trailer>
contains a closing title or footer appearing at the end of a division of a text.

Here is an example of their use:

<div>  <head>This is my heading</head>  <p>This is the body of the text</p>  <trailer>   <p>This is the trailer to my text</p></trailer></div>

N.B. At present it is not possible to use the <head> tag without using the <div> tag first.

4.3. Marking Highlighted Phrases

4.3.1. Changes of Typeface, etc.

Highlighted words or phrases are those made visibly different from the rest of the text, typically by a change of type font, handwriting style, or ink color, intended to draw the reader's attention to them.

<hi>
marks a word or phrase as graphically distinct from the surrounding text, for reasons concerning which no claim is made.
Code view:
<hi>example</hi>
Rendered view:
example
Alternatively, where the cause for the highlighting can be identified with confidence, a number of other, more specific, elements are available. All but the first two are OUCS extensions to the standard TEI markup.
<emph>
marks words or phrases which are stressed or emphasized for linguistic or rhetorical effect
Code view:
<emph>example</emph>
Rendered view:
example
<term>
contains a single-word, multi-word or symbolic designation which is regarded as a technical term
Code view:
<term>example</term>
Rendered view:
example
<gi>
An SGML, XML or HTML element name
Code view:
<gi>h1</gi>
Rendered view:
<h1>
<Button>
A button which a user can see
Code view:
<Button>Logout</Button>
Rendered view:
Logout
<Code>
Some sort of computer language code
Code view:
<Code>\textbf{a}$^34$</Code>
Rendered view:
\textbf{a}$^34$
<Command>
The name of a command
Code view:
<Command>tcsh</Command>
Rendered view:
tcsh
<Field>
A labelled input field
Code view:
<Field>Subject</Field>
Rendered view:
Subject
<Filespec>
A file or directory specification of any kind
Code view:
<Filespec>C:\Windows\My Documents</Filespec>
Rendered view:
C:\Windows\My Documents
<Icon>
an icon in a GUI
Code view:
<Icon>Notepad</Icon>
Rendered view:
Notepad
<Input>
Text for a user to type
Code view:
<Input>quota</Input>
Rendered view:
quota
<Key>
A key to press
Code view:
<Key>R</Key>
Rendered view:
<R>
<Keyword>
A keyword in some technical code the user is being asked to write
Code view:
<Keyword>font-family</Keyword>
Rendered view:
font-family
<Label>
The label for a button, radio box, etc.
Code view:
<Label>select to activate account</Label>
Rendered view:
select to activate account
<Link>
The text of a link which is being described
Code view:
<Link>IT Information</Link>
Rendered view:
IT Information
<Menu>
A menu item
Code view:
<Menu>Save as</Menu>
Rendered view:
[Save as]
<Output>
What comes back when you give a command
Code view:
<Output>job completed</Output>
Rendered view:
job completed
<Program>
A simple program listing
Code view:
<Program>i:=0;
j:=-1;</Program>
Rendered view:
i:=0; j:=-1;
<Prompt>
A prompt from the computer
Code view:
<Prompt>password:</Prompt>
Rendered view:
password:
<Screen>
A prettified display of text screenshot
Code view:
<Screen>Thanks!
Your work is complete.</Screen>
Rendered view:
Thanks! Your work is complete.
<Software>
The name of a program
Code view:
<Software>Microsoft Word</Software>
Rendered view:
Microsoft Word
<Value>
A possible value for some option
Code view:
<Value>Times-Roman 10pt</Value>
Rendered view:
Times-Roman 10pt
If you ever really need it, the <lb/> element marks the start of a new (typographic) line.

4.4. Cross References and Links

Explicit cross references or links from one point to another in a text in the same XML document may be encoded using the elements described in section 4.4.1. Simple Cross References. References or links to elements of some other XML document, or to parts of non-XML documents, may be encoded using the TEI extended pointers described in section 4.4.2. Extended Pointers.

Accessibility of your links is important. The text you use can either enhance a user's understanding of where the link will lead, or leave them clueless. The worst phrase you can use for a link is Click Here or simply Here: in both instances the user is left with no clear idea of where the link could lead. This problem is compounded for a screen reader user: they can get lists of all links from any given page, but if the author of the page has just said Click Here or Here, they will get a list consisting of just that. The user will be left stranded on the page with no clear way to move forwards in their search for information.

An accessible link is one that conveys both where the link will go and the information the user is likely to find. By default our system will add a title attribute to any link you make on your page when it is transformed into HTML. However, while this is good practice and a nice failsafe measure, it will only add the same text as the link text. This might be adequate in some circumstances, but to make your links more accessible you should add your own additional text using the n attribute. People browsing with modern visual browsers will see your additional link information when they mouse over your link, and screen reader users will have more information about where the link will take them as the title attribute is read out to them.

4.4.1. Simple Cross References

A cross reference from one point to another within a single document can be encoded using either of the following elements:
<ref>
a reference to another location in the current document usually modified by additional text.
<ptr>
a pointer to another location in the current document.
These elements share the following attribute:
target
specifies the destination of the pointer.

The difference between these two elements is that <ptr> is an empty element, simply marking a point from which a link is to be made, whereas <ref> may contain some text as well --- typically the text of the cross-reference itself. The <ptr> element would be used for a cross reference which is indicated by a symbol or icon, or in an electronic text by a button.

The following two forms, for example, are equivalent:

See especially <ref target="SEC12">section 12 on page 34</ref>.
See especially <ptr target="SEC12"/>.
The value of the target attribute must be present in the current XML document. This implies that the passage or phrase being pointed at must bear an identifier, and must therefore be tagged as an element of some kind. In the following example, the cross reference is to a <div> element:
...see especially <ptr target="SEC12"/>.... ... <div id="SEC12">  <head>Concerning Identifiers... </head></div>
The id attribute is global (i.e. can be used on any element), which means all elements in a document can be pointed to in this way. In the following example, a paragraph has been given an identifier so that it may be pointed at:
...this is discussed in <ref target="pspec">the paragraph on links</ref> ...<p id="pspec">Links may be made to any kind of element ...</p>

Sometimes the target of a cross reference does not correspond with any particular feature of a text, and so may not be tagged as an element of some kind. If the desired target is simply a point in the current document, the easiest way to mark it is by introducing an <anchor> element at the appropriate spot.

<ptr target="1234"/>.... ....<anchor id="1234"/>

4.4.2. Extended Pointers

The elements <ptr> and <ref> can only be used for cross-references whose targets occur within the same XML document as their source. They can also refer only to XML elements. The elements discussed in this section are not restricted in these ways.
<xptr>
defines a pointer to another location in the current document or an external document.
<xref>
defines a pointer to another location in the current document or an external document, usually modified by additional text or comment.

In addition to the attributes already discussed in section 4.4.1. Simple Cross References above, these elements share the following additional attribute, which is used to specify the target of the cross reference or link:

url
A Web URL specifying the destination

The following example shows how to link to another page and web site

See local information about <xref url="/email/clients/">email clients</xref> or go to <xptr   url="http://www.google.co.uk"   n="go to Google's web site"/>

The above example renders as follows:

See local information about email clients or go to http://www.google.co.uk

To link to a specific section on another page you should use the following syntax:

<xref url="/matlab/#fault_special">faults, problems, or special requests</xref>

4.5. Addresses

The <address> element is used to mark a postal address of any kind. It contains one or more <addrLine> elements, one for each line of the address.
address
contains a postal or other address, for example of a publisher, an organization, or an individual.
addrLine
contains one line of a postal or other address.
Here is a simple example:
<address>  <addrLine>Oxford University Computing Services</addrLine>  <addrLine>13 Banbury Rd</addrLine>  <addrLine>Oxford</addrLine>  <addrLine>OX2 6NN</addrLine></address>

4.6. Lists

4.6.1. The various kinds of lists

The element <list> is used to mark any kind of list. A list is a sequence of text items, which may be ordered, unordered, or a glossary list. Each item may be preceded by an item label (in a glossary list, this label is the term being defined):
<list>
contains any sequence of items organized as a list. Attributes include:
type
describes the form of the list. This attribute can have the following values:
  • unordered (for lists with bullet-marked items)
  • ordered (for lists with numbered or lettered items)
  • gloss (for lists consisting of a set of technical terms, each marked with a <label> element and accompanied by a gloss or definition marked as an <item>)
If the attribute is omitted, the default is for the list to be an unordered list.
rend
describes how the labels should appear. The rend attribute can have the following values:
  • no-bullets (for producing unordered lists with no bullet points)
  • lower-alpha (for producing ordered lists with labels a, b, c, ...)
  • upper-alpha (for producing ordered lists with labels A, B, C, ...)
  • lower-roman (for producing ordered lists with labels i, ii, iii, ...)
  • upper-roman (for producing ordered lists with labels I, II, III, ...)
If the attribute is omitted, the default is to produce the labels 1, 2, 3, ... (for ordered lists) or plain bullet points (for unordered lists).
<item>
contains one component of a list.
<label>
contains the label associated with an item in a list; in glossaries, marks the term being defined.

Individual list items are tagged with <item>. The first <item> may optionally be preceded by a <head>, which gives a heading for the list. The numbering of a list may be omitted (if reconstructible), indicated using the n attribute on each item, or (rarely) tagged as content using the <label> element. In order to achieve the same result with different browsers, the value of n should be greater than 0.

4.6.2. Examples of lists

Example 1

<list>  <head>An unordered list</head>  <item>First item in list</item>  <item>Second item in list</item>  <item>Third item in list</item></list>

An unordered list

  • First item in list
  • Second item in list
  • Third item in list

Example 2

<list type="ordered">  <head>An ordered list</head>  <item>First item in list</item>  <item>Second item in list</item>  <item>Third item in list</item></list>

An ordered list

  1. First item in list
  2. Second item in list
  3. Third item in list

Example 3

<list type="ordered">  <head>An ordered list with controlled numbering </head>  <item n="3">First item in list</item>  <item>Second item in list</item>  <item>Third item in list</item></list>

An ordered list with controlled numbering

  1. First item in list
  2. Second item in list
  3. Third item in list

Example 4

<list type="orderedrend="lower-alpha">  <head>An ordered list with letters for labels</head>  <item>First item in list</item>  <item>Second item in list</item>  <item>Third item in list</item></list>

An ordered list with letters for labels

  1. First item in list
  2. Second item in list
  3. Third item in list

Example 5

<list type="orderedrend="lower-alpha">  <head>An ordered list with controlled lettering </head>  <item n="9">First item in list</item>  <item>Second item in list</item>  <item>Third item in list</item></list>

An ordered list with controlled lettering

  1. First item in list
  2. Second item in list
  3. Third item in list

Example 6

<list type="gloss">  <head>A glossary list</head>  <label>One</label>  <item>First item in list</item>  <label>Two</label>  <item>Second item in list</item>  <label>Three</label>  <item>Third item in list</item></list>

A glossary list

One
First item in list
Two
Second item in list
Three
Third item in list

The styles should not be mixed in the same list.

Example 7

A simple two-column table may be treated as a glossary list, tagged <list type=gloss>. Here, each item comprises a term and a gloss, marked with <label> and <item> respectively.

<list type="gloss">  <head>Vocabulary</head>  <label>nu</label>  <item>now</item>  <label>lhude</label>  <item>loudly</item>  <label>bloweth</label>  <item>blooms</item>  <label>med</label>  <item>meadow</item>  <label>wude</label>  <item>wood</item>  <label>awe</label>  <item>ewe</item>  <label>lhouth</label>  <item>lows</item>  <label>sterteth</label>  <item>bounds, frisks</item>  <label>verteth</label>  <item lang="lat">pedit</item>  <label>murie</label>  <item>merrily</item>  <label>swik</label>  <item>cease</item>  <label>naver</label>  <item>never</item></list>

The above is rendered as follows:

Vocabulary

nu
now
lhude
loudly
bloweth
blooms
med
meadow
wude
wood
awe
ewe
lhouth
lows
sterteth
bounds, frisks
verteth
pedit
murie
merrily
swik
cease
naver
never

4.6.3. Nested lists

Lists of whatever kind can, of course, nest within list items to any depth required. Here, for example, a glossary list contains two items, each of which is itself a simple list:

<list type="gloss">  <label>EVIL</label>  <item>   <list type="simple">    <item>I am cast upon a horrible desolate island, void of all hope of        recovery.</item>    <item>I am singled out and separated as it were from all the world to be        miserable.</item>    <item>I am divided from mankind &amp;#8212; a solitaire; one banished from        human society.</item></list> <!-- end of first nested list --></item>  <label>GOOD</label>  <item>   <list type="simple">    <item>But I am alive; and not drowned, as all my ship's company were.</item>    <item>But I am singled out, too, from all the ship's crew, to be spared from        death...</item>    <item>But I am not starved, and perishing on a barren place, affording no        sustenances....</item></list> <!-- end of second nested list --></item></list> <!-- end of glossary list -->

The above is rendered as follows:

EVIL
  • I am cast upon a horrible desolate island, void of all hope of recovery.
  • I am singled out and separated as it were from all the world to be miserable.
  • I am divided from mankind - a solitaire; one banished from human society.
GOOD
  • But I am alive; and not drowned, as all my ship's company were.
  • But I am singled out, too, from all the ship's crew, to be spared from death...
  • But I am not starved, and perishing on a barren place, affording no sustenances....

4.7. Tables

The following elements are provided for describing tables:
<table>
contains text displayed in tabular form, in rows and columns.
<row>
contains one row of a table. Attributes include:
role
indicates the kind of information held in the cells of this row. This attribute should have the value label for labels or descriptive information, and data for actual data values. If omitted, it defaults to data.
<cell>
contains one cell of a table. Attributes include:
role
indicates the kind of information held in the cell. This attribute should have the value label for labels or descriptive information, and data for actual data values. If omitted, it defaults to data.
cols
indicates the number of columns occupied by this cell. If omitted, it defaults to 1.
rows
indicates the number of rows occupied by this cell. If omitted, it defaults to 1.

The <table> element can also take the align, summary, width, border, frame, rules, cellspacing and cellpadding attributes defined in HTML, and the conversion to HTML will pass them straight through.

4.7.1. Making your table accessible

Caution is advised when using tables as it is very easy to make them inaccessible to users of alternative technologies e.g. screen readers. It is your responsibility to make sure that any table used is comprehensible when it is linearised and that it contains suitable accessibility attributes.

Screen readers linearise tables when they are reading the content out to the user. This means that if you have failed to take this into account when designing your table, the screen reader user will not understand the content of your table. To check to see how your table will be read out, go to http://wave.webaim.org/. Run your page containing the table through this online checker. It will show you how the table will be read to a screen reader user.

All tables should be given the summary attribute regardless of whether they are for data or page layout. For data tables a short summary of the table content must be added for accessibility. Where a table is used for layout, the summary attribute is included, but left empty.

Here is an example:

<table>  <head>table shows the rise and fall of mortality figures during the plague</head>  <row role="label">   <cell/>   <cell cols="3">years</cell></row>  <row role="label">   <cell/>   <cell>1</cell>   <cell>2</cell>   <cell>3</cell></row>  <row>   <cell role="label">St. Leonard's, Shoreditch</cell>   <cell>64</cell>   <cell>84</cell>   <cell>119</cell></row>  <row>   <cell role="label">St. Botolph's, Bishopsgate</cell>   <cell>65</cell>   <cell>105</cell>   <cell>116</cell></row>  <row>   <cell role="label">St. Giles's, Cripplegate</cell>   <cell>213</cell>   <cell>421</cell>   <cell>554</cell></row></table>

The above is rendered as:

Table 1. table shows the rise and fall of mortality figures during the plague
years
123
St. Leonard's, Shoreditch 64 84 119
St. Botolph's, Bishopsgate 65 105 116
St. Giles's, Cripplegate 213 421 554

4.7.2. Making your table sortable

4.7.2.1. Normal use

If a <table> element has a rend attribute with the value tablesorter, the table will be rendered with the cells of the first column sorted and with buttons on each column that enable the person viewing the page to sort the table on another column.

<table rend="tablesorter"> ... </table>

Here is an example of what can be done:

Table 2. table shows a use of the tablesorter rend (derived from an example at http://tablesorter.com/docs/)
First Name   Last Name   Age   Total   Discount   Difference   Date and timeISOUK 1UK 2
Peter Parker 28 £9.99 20.9% +12.1 Sep 9, 2002 8:14 AM 2002-09-09 09-09-2002 09/09/2002
John Good 33 £19.99 125% +12 Jan 12, 2003 5:14 AM 2003-01-12 12-01-2003 12/01/2003
Clark Kent 18 £15.89 44% -26 Jan 18, 2001 11:14 AM 2001-01-18 18-01-2001 18/01/2001
Bruce Almighty 45 £153.19 44.7% +77 Sep 10, 2002 9:12 AM 2002-09-10 10-09-2002 10/09/2002
Bruce Evans 22 £13.19 11% -100.9 Sep 1, 2002 9:12 AM 2002-09-01 01-09-2002 01/09/2002

The above can be achieved using the following TEI:

<table rend="tablesorter">  <head>table shows a user of the tablesorter rend (derived from an example at http://tablesorter.com/docs/)</head>  <row role="label">   <cell>First Name&amp;#160;&amp;#160;&amp;#160;</cell>   <cell>Last Name&amp;#160;&amp;#160;&amp;#160;</cell>   <cell>Age&amp;#160;&amp;#160;&amp;#160;</cell>   <cell>Total&amp;#160;&amp;#160;&amp;#160;</cell>   <cell>Discount&amp;#160;&amp;#160;&amp;#160;</cell>   <cell>Difference&amp;#160;&amp;#160;&amp;#160;</cell>   <cell>Date and time</cell>   <cell>ISO</cell>   <cell>UK 1</cell>   <cell>UK 2</cell></row>  <row>   <cell>Peter</cell>   <cell>Parker</cell>   <cell>28</cell>   <cell>£9.99</cell>   <cell>20.9%</cell>   <cell>+12.1</cell>   <cell>Sep 9, 2002 8:14 AM</cell>   <cell>2002-09-09</cell>   <cell>09-09-2002</cell>   <cell>09/09/2002</cell></row>  <row>   <cell>John</cell>   <cell>Good</cell>   <cell>33</cell>   <cell>£19.99</cell>   <cell>125%</cell>   <cell>+12</cell>   <cell>Jan 12, 2003 5:14 AM</cell>   <cell>2003-01-12</cell>   <cell>12-01-2003</cell>   <cell>12/01/2003</cell></row>  <row>   <cell>Clark</cell>   <cell>Kent</cell>   <cell>18</cell>   <cell>£15.89</cell>   <cell>44%</cell>   <cell>-26</cell>   <cell>Jan 18, 2001 11:14 AM</cell>   <cell>2001-01-18</cell>   <cell>18-01-2001</cell>   <cell>18/01/2001</cell></row>  <row>   <cell>Bruce</cell>   <cell>Almighty</cell>   <cell>45</cell>   <cell>£153.19</cell>   <cell>44.7%</cell>   <cell>+77</cell>   <cell>Sep 10, 2002 9:12 AM</cell>   <cell>2002-09-10</cell>   <cell>10-09-2002</cell>   <cell>10/09/2002</cell></row>  <row>   <cell>Bruce</cell>   <cell>Evans</cell>   <cell>22</cell>   <cell>£13.19</cell>   <cell>11%</cell>   <cell>-100.9</cell>   <cell>Sep 1, 2002 9:12 AM</cell>   <cell>2002-09-01</cell>   <cell>01-09-2002</cell>   <cell>01/09/2002</cell></row></table>
4.7.2.2. Customising tablesorter

There are two ways in which the use of tablesorter can be customised. You will also find the documentation for tablesorter useful.

4.7.2.2.1. Customising tablesorter: for specific tables

This is appropriate if you want to do your own customisation of tablesorter for specific tables that occur in a TEI file.

In the teiHeader of the TEI file, you provide JavaScript like the following:

<html:script type="text/javascript"> var someOtherTextExtraction = function(node) { var anchortext = node.innerHTML.indexOf("--anchor--"); if ( anchortext == -1 ) { return node.innerHTML; } else { return node.innerHTML.substring(anchortext + 15); } } $(document).ready(function() { $table = $(".tablesorternoinitcode").tablesorter( {dateFormat: 'uk', sortList: [[0,0]], textExtraction: someOtherTextExtraction} ); } ); </html:script>

And you alter the table to have the following rends:

<table rend="tablesorter tablesorternoinitcode"> ... </table>

Gotcha: if you do provide a <html:script> element, remember to define the html namespace. For more details, see the section of this document labelled Using HTML elements in a TEI file.

The above assumes you want to do the same initialisation code for each table. If you want different initialisation code for some of the tables, add another value to the rend attribute of each table:

<table   rend="tablesorter tablesorternoinitcode tableone"> ... </table>

and refer to this value (rather than tablesorternoinitcode) in the initialisation code:

$table = $(".tableone").tablesorter(

The tablesorternoinitcode must still be present in the rend. It is being used to indicate that you do not want the XSL to generate the default initialisation code.

4.7.2.2.2. Customising tablesorter: for all tables of a site

This is appropriate if you want a micro site to have full control of the customisation of tablesorter.

The file oucsstandard.xsl has the following definition for the template outputTableSorterInitCode. In the XSL for the micro site, you define a template that overrides this.

<xsl:template name="outputTableSorterInitCode"> <script type="text/javascript"> var GTSTextExtraction = function(node) { var anchortext = node.innerHTML.indexOf("--anchor--"); if ( anchortext == -1 ) { return node.innerHTML; } else { return node.innerHTML.substring(anchortext + 15); } } $(document).ready(function() { $table = $(".tablesorter:not(.tablesorternoinitcode)").tablesorter( {dateFormat: 'uk', sortList: [[0,0]], textExtraction: GTSTextExtraction} ); } ); </script> <xsl:call-template name="outputLinebreak"/> </xsl:template>

4.8. Figures and Graphics

Not all the components of a document are necessarily textual. The most straight forward text will often contain diagrams or illustrations, to say nothing of documents in which image and text are inextricably intertwined, or electronic resources in which the two are complementary. This poses accessibility issues for users who cannot see the images. What are they? Are they important to the text, or just page decoration? Is the image a graph or simple picture? Has the author provided extra information about the graphic for those that cannot see it? If you do not provide alternative text for graphics or other accessibiity features in the page coding, the page will be inaccessible to some visitors.

The following tags and attributes are used to add images to web pages:

<figure>
marks the spot at which a graphic is to be inserted in a document. Attributes include:
url
The location and file name of a graphic.
width
The width to which the graphic should be scaled. If omitted, it defaults to the width of the graphic.
height
The height to which the graphic should be scaled. If omitted, it defaults to the height of the graphic.
scale
The extent which the graphic should be scaled (eg 0.5). If omitted, it defaults to 1.
<figDesc>
contains a textual description of the appearance or content of a graphic, essential for accessible graphics.

A picture is inserted into a document using the url attribute of the <figure> element:

<figure url="fezziPic.png">  <head>Mr Fezziwig's Ball</head>  <figDesc>A Cruikshank engraving showing Mr Fezziwig leading a group of    revellers.</figDesc></figure>

Usually, a graphic will have at the least an identifying title, which should be encoded using the <head> element. Images which are given a head tag have this text automatically converted to a figure caption and are numbered sequentially throughout the document. It is also essential to include a brief description of the image using <figDesc>. If the image is difficult to describe in just a few words, you should provide an alternative page where a full account of the image can be given to the user: this extra information should be provided via a [d] link. These are normal url links to normal web pages. By convention the [d] link should be provided next to the image in question; users needing greater detail about a given image will click on the [d] link for more information.

If the image is for decoration only (very rare on OUCS pages), it is still necessary to include the <figDesc> element in your document, but in this case it should be left blank. By convention the image is then considered just page decoration and unimportant to the reader.

If you want to control the way text flows around an image, use a rend value, as described in the Rends section.

4.9. Getting a TEI file to display a newsfeed

A newsfeed can be displayed by putting a <xptr> element with a rend of rss and a type of transclude inside a <p> element. The url attribute has the URL of the newsfeed. Our XSL can cope with newsfeeds written in RSS 2.0, RSS 1.0 and Atom 1.0.

<p> <xptr rend="rss" type="transclude" url="http://newsrss.bbc.co.uk/rss/newsonline_uk_edition/front_page/rss.xml" /> </p>

This will produce output like the following:

Emergency data laws to be passedEmergency powers to ensure police can continue to access phone and internet records are being rushed through Parliament.
Public sector workers in mass strikeStrikes are taking place across the UK over a series of disputes with the government, with more than a million public sector workers expected to join the action.
Bank holds interest rates at 0.5%The Bank of England holds UK interest rates at a record low of 0.5% for another month, and keeps its quantitative easing programme at £375bn.
Hospital worker stabbed to deathA member of staff at a mental health hospital in Gloucester dies after being stabbed at work.
Deaths rise in air strikes on GazaUp to 20 people are killed in Israeli air strikes on Gaza, Palestinian sources say, as militants continue firing rockets at Israel.
Call to review surgery waiting timesA re-think is needed on the waiting time target for routine operations as 18 weeks is too long for some patients, the new leader of UK surgeons says.
Six killed in US house shootingA gunman suspected of shooting dead six people in the US, including four of his own children, surrenders to police near Houston.
Animal experiments show small riseThe number of animal experiments carried out in the UK showed a small rise last year, despite a pledge by the government to reduce them.
Fears raised 'free NHS' will endFears are being raised the NHS in England will no longer be free at the point of use - up to now a key principle for the health service - within 10 years.
Iraq rebels 'seize nuclear material'Iraq warns the UN that Sunni militants have seized nuclear materials used for scientific research at a university in Mosul.

By default, 10 items of the feed will get output together with an RSS icon that allows people to subscribe to the newsfeed.

Gotcha: the web page will not change when new items get added to the feed unless you arrange for your page not to be cached by AxKit. Please contact webmaster@oucs.ox.ac.uk to get this done.

4.9.1. rsssummary gives a different style of output

Other components can be added to the rend to control what gets output and how it gets output.

A different style of output is delivered if you add rsssummary to the rend:

<p> <xptr rend="rss rsssummary" type="transclude" url="http://newsrss.bbc.co.uk/rss/newsonline_uk_edition/front_page/rss.xml" /> </p>

This will produce output like the following:

Emergency data laws to be passedEmergency powers to ensure police can continue to access phone and internet records are being rushed through Parliament.
Public sector workers in mass strikeStrikes are taking place across the UK over a series of disputes with the government, with more than a million public sector workers expected to join the action.
Bank holds interest rates at 0.5%The Bank of England holds UK interest rates at a record low of 0.5% for another month, and keeps its quantitative easing programme at £375bn.
Hospital worker stabbed to deathA member of staff at a mental health hospital in Gloucester dies after being stabbed at work.
Deaths rise in air strikes on GazaUp to 20 people are killed in Israeli air strikes on Gaza, Palestinian sources say, as militants continue firing rockets at Israel.
Call to review surgery waiting timesA re-think is needed on the waiting time target for routine operations as 18 weeks is too long for some patients, the new leader of UK surgeons says.
Six killed in US house shootingA gunman suspected of shooting dead six people in the US, including four of his own children, surrenders to police near Houston.
Animal experiments show small riseThe number of animal experiments carried out in the UK showed a small rise last year, despite a pledge by the government to reduce them.
Fears raised 'free NHS' will endFears are being raised the NHS in England will no longer be free at the point of use - up to now a key principle for the health service - within 10 years.
Iraq rebels 'seize nuclear material'Iraq warns the UN that Sunni militants have seized nuclear materials used for scientific research at a university in Mosul.

4.9.2. rsslimit-all outputs all items and rssnoimage omits the RSS icon

Suppose you want all the items of the feed to be output but you do not want the RSS icon:

<p> <xptr rend="rss rssnoimage rsslimit-all" type="transclude" url="http://newsrss.bbc.co.uk/rss/newsonline_uk_edition/front_page/rss.xml" /> </p>

This will produce output like the following:

Emergency data laws to be passedEmergency powers to ensure police can continue to access phone and internet records are being rushed through Parliament.
Public sector workers in mass strikeStrikes are taking place across the UK over a series of disputes with the government, with more than a million public sector workers expected to join the action.
Bank holds interest rates at 0.5%The Bank of England holds UK interest rates at a record low of 0.5% for another month, and keeps its quantitative easing programme at £375bn.
Hospital worker stabbed to deathA member of staff at a mental health hospital in Gloucester dies after being stabbed at work.
Deaths rise in air strikes on GazaUp to 20 people are killed in Israeli air strikes on Gaza, Palestinian sources say, as militants continue firing rockets at Israel.
Call to review surgery waiting timesA re-think is needed on the waiting time target for routine operations as 18 weeks is too long for some patients, the new leader of UK surgeons says.
Six killed in US house shootingA gunman suspected of shooting dead six people in the US, including four of his own children, surrenders to police near Houston.
Animal experiments show small riseThe number of animal experiments carried out in the UK showed a small rise last year, despite a pledge by the government to reduce them.
Fears raised 'free NHS' will endFears are being raised the NHS in England will no longer be free at the point of use - up to now a key principle for the health service - within 10 years.
Iraq rebels 'seize nuclear material'Iraq warns the UN that Sunni militants have seized nuclear materials used for scientific research at a university in Mosul.
More BBC TV 'may be made externally'BBC director general Lord Hall sets out proposals to introduce an open market for programme-making at the corporation.
PM's strike 'crackdown' - front pagesDavid Cameron's pledge to toughen the rules governing unions' strike ballots makes headlines, while tax avoidance remains on front pages.
VIDEO: Cave transformed into giant trampolineThe world's largest underground trampoline has been unveiled in a cave in Blaenau Ffestiniog, North Wales.
Sculpture park wins museum awardThe open-air Yorkshire Sculpture Park is named the museum of the year for its "bold artistic vision".
No-one wanted first penalty - Van GaalLouis van Gaal says two Netherlands players refused to take the first penalty in their World Cup semi-final shootout defeat.
Seagull swoops in race photo finishPlucky bird causes a flap at Brighton as first to be caught on camera in photo finish of a horse race.
Argentine progress leaves Brazil braced for final insultArgentina's World Cup final date at the Maracana on Sunday may mean the worst is still to come for hosts Brazil, says Phil McNulty.
Evra asks Man Utd for Juventus movePatrice Evra asks to leave Manchester United but stops short of handing in a transfer request amid interest from Juventus.
Arsenal close to Sanchez signingArsenal agree a deal in principle worth around £30m to sign Chile international forward Alexis Sanchez from Barcelona.
VIDEO: Lost mobile phone's amazing journeyA US farmer who lost his mobile phone in a grain pit has it returned - nine months later from a different continent.
VIDEO: Japan typhoon creates fatal landslideA 12-year-old boy is the latest victim of Japan's Typhoon Neoguri as a landslide crashes through the town of Nagiso destroying buildings in its path.
VIDEO: Justin Bieber's 'extremely silly' egg attackCanadian pop star Justin Bieber has been sentenced to two years probation in connection with the egging of his neighbour's home.
VIDEO: Contest to find new Swiss anthemA contest is under way to compose a new national anthem for Switzerland, but what makes an ideal anthem?
VIDEO: Drone helps Fukushima clean-upScientists at the University of Bristol have successfully mapped radiation levels around a Japanese power station using a drone.
VIDEO: Pesticide threat to wild birdsNew research suggests that a farm pesticide which has been blamed for impacting Britain's bee colonies may also be harming the nation's wild birds.
VIDEO: Why Boyhood took 12 years to filmRichard Linklater's latest film Boyhood, is a coming-of-age story shot over a 12 year period with the same group of actors.
VIDEO: Clinton the musical bursts onto stageThe creators of Clinton the musical talk about writing the show and why they hope audiences will find it funny.
UK trade deficit widens in MayThe UK's trade deficit widened in May, pushed up by aircraft imports, official data from the Office for National Statistics shows.
VIDEO: Justin King on leaving Sainsbury'sSainsbury's chief executive Justin King is leaving the company after 10 years - he explains how he turned the company around - and the challenge of discount supermarkets.
MPs call for 'new Magna Carta' debateThe 800th anniversary of Magna Carta is the right time for a debate on the merits of a written constitution, MPs say.
AUDIO: How May has made it as Home SecretaryDanny Shaw looks at Theresa May's record as she becomes the longest-serving Home Secretary for 50 years.
EU court rejects new cannabis claimThe EU's top court says designer drugs that mimic cannabis, which are already illegal in many countries, cannot be classed as medicinal.
VIDEO: PM and Miliband trade health statisticsEd Miliband calls for David Cameron to "correct the record" over hospital waiting times claims.
Teachers stage day of strike actionThousands of pupils in England and Wales are missing lessons on Thursday as members of the National Union of Teachers walk out on strike.
VIDEO: Gove criticises 'damaging' strikeMichael Gove criticises what he calls "an ideologically motivated minority" of NUT members for a planned walkout by teachers on Thursday.
Google Glass controlled by brainwaveA London start-up hacks Google Glass so it can be controlled by a person's brainwaves.
Bird decline linked to pesticide useA new report says the widespread use of a neonicotinoid chemical is linked to a marked decline in bird numbers in Europe.
VIDEO: Drone helps Fukushima clean-upScientists at the University of Bristol have successfully mapped radiation levels around a Japanese power station using a drone.
Critics split on complex Richard IIIAn "ingenious" but "complicated" production of Shakespeare's Richard III earns mixed reviews for Sherlock star Martin Freeman.
VIDEO: Jazz on the lake and more arts storiesThe Montreux Festival gets going, intricate Chinese engraving on eggshells and more from the world of arts.
What's happening to train wi-fi?Ministers promise quicker wi-fi for all commuters. How does it work?
What is 'raw' chocolate?Chocolate claimed to be a "superfood" is hitting shops and cafes.
Egyptian statue plans 'catastrophic'Comic book writer Alan Moore says a council's plans to sell a 4,000-year-old Egyptian statue valued at about £6m "could only be catastrophic".
Boy, 3, found in swimming pool diesA three-year-old who was found "unresponsive" in a swimming pool in Wiltshire dies.
Single energy market recommendedSingle markets in electricity and gas covering the whole of Great Britain should continue if Scotland becomes independent, a report says.
Whisky boss: 'I've not been bullied'The current chief executive of the Scotch Whisky Association says no-one has attempted to bully him during the referendum campaign.
Unionists call for marching inquiryUnionist leaders call on the secretary of state to set up a legal inquiry into marching issues in north Belfast, after a parade was barred from its return route on 12 July.
Thousands of workers staging strikeThousands of public sector workers take strike action in protest at a range of issues including pay and pensions.
Schools and councils hit by strikeSchools, courts, job centres and council services are being hit as around 70,000 public sector workers in Wales join a one-day strike over pay, pensions and working conditions.
Crash burns victim returns to skiingA 20-year-old Wrexham woman who suffered 96% burns to her body returns to the ski slope as part of her recovery work.
Burundi law to limit church numbersBurundi's parliament passes a bill to curb the "proliferation of churches" in a country where there are more than 500 practising denominations.
'Beat pirates with roads, not ships'Building roads and harbours in Somalia is a better way of tackling piracy than deploying warships, a study says.
India unveils 'budget for growth'India's new government unveils what it calls a budget for growth, lifting some caps on investment and planning to bring in a goods and services tax.
Calm urged for Indonesia vote countIndonesia's outgoing president urges both election camps to keep supporters in check while counting takes place, after both claim victory.
France eyes anti-terror travel banThe French government proposes travels bans to stop citizens travelling to Syria and Iraq to fight alongside Islamist militants.
Two men gored in Spanish bull runTwo Spaniards have been gored and several other people have been hurt on the fourth day of the traditional running of the bulls festival in Pamplona.
Brazil police indict 12 over ticketsBrazilian police formally accuse the director of a Fifa partner firm and 11 other people over an alleged World Cup ticket-reselling scandal.
Uruguay legal cannabis sale delayedUruguayan President Jose Mujica says legal cannabis sales will be delayed until next year due to "practical difficulties".
Syria opposition elects new leaderSyria's main opposition alliance, the National Coalition, elects Hadi al-Bahra as its new president at a meeting in Turkey.
Fifty bodies found south of BaghdadThe bullet-riddled bodies of 53 men are found south of Baghdad, as Iraq's prime minister claims Kurdistan is becoming a haven for jihadist-led rebels.
Obama sides with Texas on border fixPresident Barack Obama sides with Republican Texas Governor Rick Perry on ideas to shore up security on the US-Mexico border.
NSA and FBI 'spied on US Muslims'The US spied on emails of five high-profile Muslim Americans to try to identify security threats, documents leaked by Edward Snowden show.
Day in pictures: 8 July 201424 hours of news photos: 8 July
In pictures: Rare noctilucent cloudsReaders' photos of 'noctilucent' cloud formations
Tour de France and the selfieRiders complain as fans try to get close to Tour de France
In pictures: Iraq shrines destroyedMuslim holy sites being destroyed by extremists in northern Iraq
Day in pictures: 7 July 201424 hours of news photos: 7 July
In pictures: Liverpool Biennial 2014Derelict union office becomes art gallery in Liverpool
A year in the life of WhitstableA year in the life of the seaside town
In pictures: Jousting at Linlithgow PalaceMedieval jousting and combat skills
VIDEO: House of CommonsHome Secretary Theresa May is making a statement on communications.
AUDIO: Uncensored: Sassoon's AtrocitiesActor and director Samuel West reads the uncensored version of Siegfried Sassoon’s poem Atrocities.
VIDEO: Charity adverts run with jihad videosAdverts for charities, government organisations and the BBC are running on video sharing websites before some jihadi videos, Newsnight finds.
VIDEO: Prison conditions 'getting worse'There has been a "significant" and worrying deterioration in the standards of British jails, the chief inspector of prisons in England and Wales says.
VIDEO: Video shows airstrikes on Gaza StripFootage shows buildings being blown up and Israeli Defence Force cockpit video of airstrikes on the Gaza Strip as tension in the region mounts.
VIDEO: Where are Gaza militants firing rockets?The BBC's James Reynolds reports from near Sderot - which has been targeted by rocket attacks from Gaza.
VIDEO: Action prince is new UK scuba presidentThe Duke of Cambridge has donned a wetsuit and shown off his scuba diving skills to mark his new role as the president of the British Sub-Aqua Club, after taking over from his father Prince Charles.
VIDEO: 'I'm not a hero, I just ordered pizzas'A pilot in the US ordered and paid for pizzas for a plane full of passengers after they were held on the tarmac in Wyoming.
VIDEO: Panic as fans flee Copacabana beachHundreds of football fans who were watching the World Cup semi-final in Rio fled Copacabana beach in a panic.
The ancient sites targeted by high-tech gunsHow ancient treasures in Syria are being bombed to pieces
10 World Cup stars' tattoos decodedNine World Cup players' tattoos decoded, and one who refuses
What's in a name?Would Google have made it as BackRub?
Wilde's grandson's stage scandalOscar Wilde's court ordeal brought to stage by his grandson
VIDEO: Who is the real Madeline?Iconic schoolgirl turns 75, celebrated with art exhibition
Karzai poster row bodes ill for AfghanistanWhy ripping up Karzai portrait bodes ill for Afghanistan
Dragon sequel 'richer' than originalHow to Train Your Dragon sequel aims to outdo original
Air checks: What do passengers think?What passengers think of new airport security checks
The NHS budget: Five things we've learnedHow new report lifts the lid on NHS finances
Why Coe is set to win BBC raceWhy Coe is likely to win race for BBC top job

4.9.3. rsslimit-2 outputs two items and rssbrief just outputs the titles

Suppose you just want the titles and you only want two items output:

<p> <xptr rend="rss rssbrief rsslimit-2" type="transclude" url="http://newsrss.bbc.co.uk/rss/newsonline_uk_edition/front_page/rss.xml" /> </p>

This will produce output like the following:

Emergency data laws to be passed
Public sector workers in mass strike

4.9.4. jsdate-XXXX outputs the date the item was published

If you also want the date when the item was published, you can use:

<p> <xptr rend="jsdate-[d_F_Y] rss rssbrief rsslimit-2" type="transclude" url="http://newsrss.bbc.co.uk/rss/newsonline_uk_edition/front_page/rss.xml" /> </p>

Here the rend attribute has a component that starts with jsdate-. This is followed by some notation (e.g., [d_F_Y]) that indicates how you want the date formatted. It uses the same notation that is used by PHP for its date function with the addition of one character: a _ means generate a space.

The date is output in a <span> that has a class of rssdate and the default CSS hides any such span. So you will also need to define some CSS to ensure the date is displayed:

<html:style type="text/css"> .rssdate { display: inline; padding-left: 10px; } </html:style>

This will produce output like the following:

Emergency data laws to be passed
Public sector workers in mass strike

Here's another example. The TEI elements:

<p> <xptr rend="jsdate-l,_F_jS,_Y rss rssnoimage rsslimit-2" type="transclude" url="http://newsrss.bbc.co.uk/rss/newsonline_uk_edition/front_page/rss.xml" /> </p>

will produce output like the following:

Emergency data laws to be passedEmergency powers to ensure police can continue to access phone and internet records are being rushed through Parliament.
Public sector workers in mass strikeStrikes are taking place across the UK over a series of disputes with the government, with more than a million public sector workers expected to join the action.

4.10. Using HTML elements in a TEI file

Although TEI is a rich language so that most of what can be coded in HTML can also be coded in TEI, there are occasions when you may want to use some HTML in a TEI document.

If you wish to do this, you need to introduce a namespace that you can use to say that a particular element belongs to HTML rather than to TEI. Usually, the name html is used for this namespace.

Somewhere you have to indicate which name you are using. Usually, this is done by replacing the first line of the file:
<TEI.2>
by:
<TEI.2 xmlns:html="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml">
You can then use an HTML element (e.g., the <style> element) by prefixing its name with the namespace html:
<html:style type="text/css"> .overdue: { background-color: red; } </html:style>
Here is another example:
<html:script type="text/javascript"> var GCS_due_date = ""; ... </html:script>

If you want some HTML elements to appear in the <head> element of the HTML that gets generated, you should put these elements between the <fileDesc> and the <revisionDesc> elements (that appear in the <teiHeader>).

Suppose you do wish to add an HTML <style> element. The rules of HTML say the <style> element must finish up in the <head> element of the resulting HTML. So to achieve this, use something like:
... </fileDesc> <html:style type="text/css"> .overdue: { background-color: red; } </html:style> <revisionDesc> ...

4.11. Forms to collect data and send a message

It is possible to provide a form (in a TEI file) that collects some data from a user and sends that data to someone in an e-mail message. There are details about this in a document on FormMail.

4.12. Accessibility of documentation

Accessibility of our documentation is paramount to ensure documents are accessible to all readers and for OUCS to stay on the correct side of the law. It is necessary for all OUCS authors to familiarise themselves with the ways and means to make their documents as accessible as possible.

Authors need to make sure that they follow the following guidelines:

  • do not make links with the text here or click here, make links that mean something out of context of the sentence they are in. Similarly do not use the same titles for lots of different links on a page when they actually point to different places.
  • When using graphics always provide the <figDesc> element. If necessary go the extra step and make a [d] link for longer explanations of figures
  • When using tables, make sure they are comprehensible when they are linearised. Always include the summary attribute regardless of whether the table is for layout or data. The latter requires you to give some details of the table's content.
  • When you have finished making a web page, you can check its accessibility using online services such as those found in the Complete List of Web Accessibility Evaluation Tools (compiled by the Web Accessibility Initiative (WAI)).

Please use these checkers and make any changes required.

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