1. Introduction

Today, documents are usually prepared electronically using a word processor such as Word or OpenOffice. Such programs allow their users to make good-looking documents easily and quickly. However, there are problems associated with the multitude of different formats and programs used to produce documents. For instance:

  • users can become locked into specific file formats;
  • conversion to other formats becomes more difficult with time;
  • the storage media used can quickly go out of fashion making document retrieval an expensive specialist service;
  • formats change over time and vendors might not provide conversion mechanisms from old to new formats.

OUCS has adopted an open, vendor independent format approach to maintain our documentation in an accessible and interchangeable format. Our system uses XML or eXtensible Markup Language to store documents. XML allows the user to develop their own rules to code up their documents. However, there are already many different versions of XML rules available so we do not need to develop anything new for OUCS. Our system uses a modified version of the Text Encoding Initiative (TEI) XML for writing documentation.

1.1. TEI and OUCS

The Text Encoding Initiative (TEI) Guidelines are an international and interdisciplinary standard that enables libraries, museums, publishers, and individual scholars to represent a variety of literary and linguistic texts for online research, teaching, and preservation.

The TEI standard is maintained by a consortium of leading institutions and projects worldwide; Oxford is one of these institutions. Two of the major players in the TEI are members of OUCS: Lou Burnard and Sebastian Rahtz. Lou joined the Text Encoding Initiative project as its European Editor back in 1989 (a post he still holds), while Sebastian is one of the consortium's directors and actively develops the TEI itself.

1.2. OUCS Web Site Accessibility

Since 2002 it has been law to provide documents (including web pages) in accessible formats to users of alternative technologies such as screen readers. The relevant legislation is the Special Educational Needs and Disability Act (SENDA) 2001 which is part 4 of the Disability discrimination Act (DDA). This act brought Education establishments into line with commercial providers in the way that they provide information and services to the disabled community.

The W3C organisation have created various standards for web accessibility. These are:

  • Priority 1 (A)
  • Priority 2 (AA)
  • Priority 3 (AAA)

Priority level details

All OUCS pages should reach level 1 standard. The University has decided that its web sites should ideally conform to the level 2 standard and meet as many level 3 points as possible.

The following document includes details on how to make your XML documents accessible to as wide an audience as possible. Please make sure that you follow these accessibility guidelines - it's the LAW!

2. How does the OUCS system work?

The OUCS XML documentation system has six components:

  1. An XML schema, derived from the Text Encoding Initiative, located at http://www.oucs.ox.ac.uk/schemas/tei-oucs.rng
  2. A set of XSLT stylesheets, which can transform document instances to HTML pages; see http://www.tei-c.org/Tools/Stylesheets/
  3. A set of XSLT stylesheets, which can transform document instances into PDF for printing; see http://www.tei-c.org/Tools/Stylesheets/
  4. CSS stylesheets for displaying the XML files directly (http://www.oucs.ox.ac.uk/schemas/tei-oucs.css, which can also be used with some editors), and for enhancing the HTML versions (http://www.oucs.ox.ac.uk/stylesheet/oucs/oucs.css)
  5. The XML text document
  6. The change management system where all the material is stored

Taking each of these parts in turn:

2.1. XML Schema

The rules of the TEI XML format are stored in a schema (we use the RELAXNG schema language) file. This file defines the structure of how XML is to be written and is the key to transforming the text from one format to another. In order to write a valid TEI XML document the schema has to be followed. Luckily there are many XML editors that look after the schema for you and show any errors when the document is tested against the schema.

2.2. XSLT Stylesheets

An XSLT Stylesheet or Extensible Stylesheet Language Transformation Stylesheet is basically a set of rules to process a XML document. It turns an XML rendition of a file into the final version of a file. OUCS uses two versions of XSLT files, one turns an XML file into a web page (HTML format), the other turns XML into PDF format for printing.

2.3. CSS Stylesheets

CSS or Cascading Style Sheets are files containing information on how a document is to be presented e.g. bold, red headings or grey backgrounds. There are two versions used by OUCS: one displays the XML file directly and is fairly simple; the other displays the final web page and is fairly complex.

2.4. Version Control System

This is the method by which documents are stored. OUCS uses an open source system called Subversion to store XML documents. It is not restricted in the type of documents it can accept, allowing us to store just about anything we might need.

3. Getting Started - The Basics

There are a few steps that need to be taken before you can get documents up on the web site. These are outlined below:

Obtain a suitable XML editor
We recommend the cross-platform oXygen editor, for which we have a site licence; see the document on How to use oXygen at OUCS
Obtain a Subversion client
We recommend Syncro SVN, the client which comes with oXygen. Details are given in the document Using the Syncro Subversion client
Obtain a Subversion account
Accounts can be setup by visiting https://svn.oucs.ox.ac.uk/admin/useradmin/
Write your document!
This part is up to you! If you are unsure how to start, open an XML file and save under a different name. After removing the original content of the file, you can now use this file and add your own content as necessary.

Before submitting your file to Subversion, you should check your document's syntax. Most XML editors have facilities to check the validity of your document against your schema. Make any corrections necessary before submitting the file to the main Subversion repository. Also bear in mind that your document should be fully accessible and SENDA compliant.

3.1. A Few Definitions

Elements and Tags
XML documents have lots of elements, one example is the title element. This begins with a start-tag <title> and is closed by the end-tag </title>. Any text between the start and end tags is therefore defined as the title of the document. Most XML tags work in this way: a start tag, some text, followed by an end tag. There are some elements that are self closing (i.e. they have no end tag); where appropriate these will be highlighted later in this document.
Content and Data
Any text between tags is the content of the element. This can be of two forms: the actual information or data; and other elements. Where the two occur together this is termed mixed content.
Attributes

All elements can have additional properties beside the element name and content. These properties are the attributes of an element and they consist of name-value pairs. For example a <div> element can have the attribute id="xxx", where xxx represents a name or number. In the example below, the id is 'email':

<div id="email">  <head>Configuring your email client</head>  <p> text....</p></div>
XML structure and nesting tags

XML is very strict on its element structure, especially compared to HTML. In XML, tags usually have to be started and ended. They must be nested properly and used in the correct place within the document hierarchy. This generally means that you cannot open a new tag e.g. <p> without closing the previous <p> tag. (N.B. there are exceptions to this rule e.g. self-closing tags).

3.2. Dissecting the OUCS XML Template

Viewing the OUCS template code in your editor shows the document structure. The complete page structure is shown below:

<TEI.2>  <teiHeader>   <fileDesc>    <titleStmt>     <title>Markup for OUCS documents</title>     <author>Sebastian Rahtz</author></titleStmt>    <editionStmt>     <edition>      <date>May 2009</date></edition></editionStmt>    <publicationStmt>     <authority>webmaster@it.ox.ac.uk</authority></publicationStmt>    <sourceDesc>     <p>This is the master version of an original document.</p></sourceDesc></fileDesc>   <revisionDesc>    <change>     <date>$LastChangedDate: 2014-04-23 10:28:49 +0100 (Wed, 23 Apr 2014) $</date>     <respStmt>      <name>$LastChangedBy: publish-button $</name></respStmt>     <item>$LastChangedRevision: 157843 $</item></change></revisionDesc></teiHeader>  <text>   <body> <!-- Your text goes in here.... --></body></text></TEI.2>

First comes the declaration that the file is a TEI document <TEI.2>. This is effectively the start tag for the document, all other elements must be correctly arranged or nested inside the <TEI.2> tags for the document to be valid TEI XML.

The first element inside <TEI.2> is the <teiHeader> element. Everything within this element is part of the document's Metadata (Metadata is data about the document, e.g. its title, author, creation date etc.). OUCS documents have a number of fields in the <teiHeader>; some have to be manually completed, such as the title of the document, while others are automatically added on document submission e.g. Last changed by information. Usually, when writing your own documents, you should complete the following metadata elements:

  • title
  • author
  • date

It will also be necessary to complete an extra sections in the header recording who is responsible

  • authority

The end of the metadata is marked by the closing </teiHeader> tag.

After the metadata comes the body of the document. This can be split into three sections:

<front>
contains any prefatory matter (headers, title page, prefaces, dedications, etc.) found before the start of a text proper.
<body>
contains the whole body of a single unitary text, excluding any front or back matter.
<back>
contains any appendices, etc., following the main part of a text.

The majority of OUCS documents only use the body section for the text. This is shown in the next example:

<teiHeader>... </teiHeader> <text>  <body>   <p>Your text goes in here....</p></body></text>

If you do want to include front and/or back additions to your document, the sections are coded in the following manner:

<text>  <front>   <titlePage>    <docTitle>     <titlePart type="main">Markup for OUCS documents</titlePart></docTitle>    <docAuthor>Ian Senior</docAuthor>    <docDate>May 2005</docDate></titlePage></front>  <body>   <p>Your text goes in here....</p></body>  <back>   <div id="appendix">    <head>Appendix</head>    <p>More text in here...</p></div></back></text>

4. Coding your document

Like HTML, XML relies on elements to code up the document. If you are familiar with coding HTML files the transition to XML should be fairly painless. OUCS XML has many elements available for use, although in any one document only a subset of these will ever be applied. In this section we discuss the elements making up the body of a text.

4.1. Sectioning your text

Your text may be just a series of paragraphs, or these paragraphs may be grouped together into chapters, sections, subsections, etc. In the former case, each paragraph is embedded inside a the <p> element. In the latter case, the <body> may be divided into a series of <div> elements, which may be further subdivided. An example of div structure is shown below:

<div>  <head>This is my heading</head>  <p> This is a paragraph</p>  <div>   <head>This is my inner section heading</head>   <p> This is a paragraph in the inner section</p></div> <!--This div closes the inner section--></div> <!--This div formally closes entire section-->

Sectioning your document has important effects on the OUCS web site. Each div used is processed when the document is converted into html. Major divisions are treated as separate web pages and help to form the basis of the internal page navigation system. Each division is also sequentially numbered: 1, 2, 3 ... Where a div section is within another div, it is treated as a subsection and numbered accordingly e.g. 2.1, 2.2, 2.3....

Sectioning documents also influences the HTML output to browsers. The title of a document is always given the <h1> tag, major divisions are thus given the <h2> tag and minor section divisions are given <h3>, <h4>, <h5> etc. depending on how deep they are nested within the document.

Correct structural markup for documentation is important for accessibility. When documents are marked up in a structured way, they allow users of alternative technologies to discover the main sections and subsections more quickly and more easily. The structure allows users to jump from one section to another, without the need to read all of the information on the page. Documents that do not use structured markup pose a problem (to screen reader users in particular), as it is very difficult to find out what is on a page without reading all of the text. Where structural markup has not been used, the author has often employed styles (bold, italic, etc.) to indicate different sections and headings. While obvious to sighted readers, the structure is lost to screen reader users who must read the page to find out if it is of interest to them.

It is a requirement for authors to structure their documents in an accessible manner: relying on style alone is to be avoided as this results in inaccessible documents.

The following elements can be used to divide up your text:

<p>
marks paragraphs in prose.
<div>
contains a subdivision of the front, body, or back of a text.

When structural divisions smaller than a <div> are necessary, inner <div> elements may be used, without limit to the depth of nesting (see example above).

A div element can have the following three attributes:
type
This indicates the conventional name for this category of text division. Its value might be something like ‘Preface’.
id
This specifies a unique identifier for the division, which may be used for cross references or other links to it, such as a commentary. It is often useful to provide an id attribute for every major structural unit in a text, and to derive the id values in some systematic way, for example by appending a section number to a short code for the title of the work in question.
n
The n attribute specifies a mnemonic short name or number for the division, which can be used to identify it in preference to the id. If a conventional form of reference or abbreviation for the parts of a work already exists (such as the book/chapter/verse pattern of Biblical citations), the n attribute is the place to record it.
The attributes id and n, indeed, are so widely useful that they are allowed on any element in any TEI schema: they are global attributes.

The value of every id attribute must be unique within a document. They may be used to derive the names of HTML pages, so giving sensible mnemonic names is a good idea.

4.2. Headings and Closings

Every <div> may have a title or heading, and (less commonly) a closing such as ‘End of Chapter 1’. The following elements may be used to mark them up:
<head>
contains any heading, for example, the title of a section, or the heading of a list or glossary.
<trailer>
contains a closing title or footer appearing at the end of a division of a text.

Here is an example of their use:

<div>  <head>This is my heading</head>  <p>This is the body of the text</p>  <trailer>   <p>This is the trailer to my text</p></trailer></div>

N.B. At present it is not possible to use the <head> tag without using the <div> tag first.

4.3. Marking Highlighted Phrases

4.3.1. Changes of Typeface, etc.

Highlighted words or phrases are those made visibly different from the rest of the text, typically by a change of type font, handwriting style, or ink color, intended to draw the reader's attention to them.

<hi>
marks a word or phrase as graphically distinct from the surrounding text, for reasons concerning which no claim is made.
Code view:
<hi>example</hi>
Rendered view:
example
Alternatively, where the cause for the highlighting can be identified with confidence, a number of other, more specific, elements are available. All but the first two are OUCS extensions to the standard TEI markup.
<emph>
marks words or phrases which are stressed or emphasized for linguistic or rhetorical effect
Code view:
<emph>example</emph>
Rendered view:
example
<term>
contains a single-word, multi-word or symbolic designation which is regarded as a technical term
Code view:
<term>example</term>
Rendered view:
example
<gi>
An SGML, XML or HTML element name
Code view:
<gi>h1</gi>
Rendered view:
<h1>
<Button>
A button which a user can see
Code view:
<Button>Logout</Button>
Rendered view:
Logout
<Code>
Some sort of computer language code
Code view:
<Code>\textbf{a}$^34$</Code>
Rendered view:
\textbf{a}$^34$
<Command>
The name of a command
Code view:
<Command>tcsh</Command>
Rendered view:
tcsh
<Field>
A labelled input field
Code view:
<Field>Subject</Field>
Rendered view:
Subject
<Filespec>
A file or directory specification of any kind
Code view:
<Filespec>C:\Windows\My Documents</Filespec>
Rendered view:
C:\Windows\My Documents
<Icon>
an icon in a GUI
Code view:
<Icon>Notepad</Icon>
Rendered view:
Notepad
<Input>
Text for a user to type
Code view:
<Input>quota</Input>
Rendered view:
quota
<Key>
A key to press
Code view:
<Key>R</Key>
Rendered view:
<R>
<Keyword>
A keyword in some technical code the user is being asked to write
Code view:
<Keyword>font-family</Keyword>
Rendered view:
font-family
<Label>
The label for a button, radio box, etc.
Code view:
<Label>select to activate account</Label>
Rendered view:
select to activate account
<Link>
The text of a link which is being described
Code view:
<Link>IT Information</Link>
Rendered view:
IT Information
<Menu>
A menu item
Code view:
<Menu>Save as</Menu>
Rendered view:
[Save as]
<Output>
What comes back when you give a command
Code view:
<Output>job completed</Output>
Rendered view:
job completed
<Program>
A simple program listing
Code view:
<Program>i:=0;
j:=-1;</Program>
Rendered view:
i:=0; j:=-1;
<Prompt>
A prompt from the computer
Code view:
<Prompt>password:</Prompt>
Rendered view:
password:
<Screen>
A prettified display of text screenshot
Code view:
<Screen>Thanks!
Your work is complete.</Screen>
Rendered view:
Thanks! Your work is complete.
<Software>
The name of a program
Code view:
<Software>Microsoft Word</Software>
Rendered view:
Microsoft Word
<Value>
A possible value for some option
Code view:
<Value>Times-Roman 10pt</Value>
Rendered view:
Times-Roman 10pt
If you ever really need it, the <lb/> element marks the start of a new (typographic) line.

4.4. Cross References and Links

Explicit cross references or links from one point to another in a text in the same XML document may be encoded using the elements described in section 4.4.1. Simple Cross References. References or links to elements of some other XML document, or to parts of non-XML documents, may be encoded using the TEI extended pointers described in section 4.4.2. Extended Pointers.

Accessibility of your links is important. The text you use can either enhance a user's understanding of where the link will lead, or leave them clueless. The worst phrase you can use for a link is Click Here or simply Here: in both instances the user is left with no clear idea of where the link could lead. This problem is compounded for a screen reader user: they can get lists of all links from any given page, but if the author of the page has just said Click Here or Here, they will get a list consisting of just that. The user will be left stranded on the page with no clear way to move forwards in their search for information.

An accessible link is one that conveys both where the link will go and the information the user is likely to find. By default our system will add a title attribute to any link you make on your page when it is transformed into HTML. However, while this is good practice and a nice failsafe measure, it will only add the same text as the link text. This might be adequate in some circumstances, but to make your links more accessible you should add your own additional text using the n attribute. People browsing with modern visual browsers will see your additional link information when they mouse over your link, and screen reader users will have more information about where the link will take them as the title attribute is read out to them.

4.4.1. Simple Cross References

A cross reference from one point to another within a single document can be encoded using either of the following elements:
<ref>
a reference to another location in the current document usually modified by additional text.
<ptr>
a pointer to another location in the current document.
These elements share the following attribute:
target
specifies the destination of the pointer.

The difference between these two elements is that <ptr> is an empty element, simply marking a point from which a link is to be made, whereas <ref> may contain some text as well --- typically the text of the cross-reference itself. The <ptr> element would be used for a cross reference which is indicated by a symbol or icon, or in an electronic text by a button.

The following two forms, for example, are equivalent:

See especially <ref target="SEC12">section 12 on page 34</ref>.
See especially <ptr target="SEC12"/>.
The value of the target attribute must be present in the current XML document. This implies that the passage or phrase being pointed at must bear an identifier, and must therefore be tagged as an element of some kind. In the following example, the cross reference is to a <div> element:
...see especially <ptr target="SEC12"/>.... ... <div id="SEC12">  <head>Concerning Identifiers... </head></div>
The id attribute is global (i.e. can be used on any element), which means all elements in a document can be pointed to in this way. In the following example, a paragraph has been given an identifier so that it may be pointed at:
...this is discussed in <ref target="pspec">the paragraph on links</ref> ...<p id="pspec">Links may be made to any kind of element ...</p>

Sometimes the target of a cross reference does not correspond with any particular feature of a text, and so may not be tagged as an element of some kind. If the desired target is simply a point in the current document, the easiest way to mark it is by introducing an <anchor> element at the appropriate spot.

<ptr target="1234"/>.... ....<anchor id="1234"/>

4.4.2. Extended Pointers

The elements <ptr> and <ref> can only be used for cross-references whose targets occur within the same XML document as their source. They can also refer only to XML elements. The elements discussed in this section are not restricted in these ways.
<xptr>
defines a pointer to another location in the current document or an external document.
<xref>
defines a pointer to another location in the current document or an external document, usually modified by additional text or comment.

In addition to the attributes already discussed in section 4.4.1. Simple Cross References above, these elements share the following additional attribute, which is used to specify the target of the cross reference or link:

url
A Web URL specifying the destination

The following example shows how to link to another page and web site

See local information about <xref url="/email/clients/">email clients</xref> or go to <xptr   url="http://www.google.co.uk"   n="go to Google's web site"/>

The above example renders as follows:

See local information about email clients or go to http://www.google.co.uk

To link to a specific section on another page you should use the following syntax:

<xref url="/matlab/#fault_special">faults, problems, or special requests</xref>

4.5. Addresses

The <address> element is used to mark a postal address of any kind. It contains one or more <addrLine> elements, one for each line of the address.
address
contains a postal or other address, for example of a publisher, an organization, or an individual.
addrLine
contains one line of a postal or other address.
Here is a simple example:
<address>  <addrLine>Oxford University Computing Services</addrLine>  <addrLine>13 Banbury Rd</addrLine>  <addrLine>Oxford</addrLine>  <addrLine>OX2 6NN</addrLine></address>

4.6. Lists

4.6.1. The various kinds of lists

The element <list> is used to mark any kind of list. A list is a sequence of text items, which may be ordered, unordered, or a glossary list. Each item may be preceded by an item label (in a glossary list, this label is the term being defined):
<list>
contains any sequence of items organized as a list. Attributes include:
type
describes the form of the list. This attribute can have the following values:
  • unordered (for lists with bullet-marked items)
  • ordered (for lists with numbered or lettered items)
  • gloss (for lists consisting of a set of technical terms, each marked with a <label> element and accompanied by a gloss or definition marked as an <item>)
If the attribute is omitted, the default is for the list to be an unordered list.
rend
describes how the labels should appear. The rend attribute can have the following values:
  • no-bullets (for producing unordered lists with no bullet points)
  • lower-alpha (for producing ordered lists with labels a, b, c, ...)
  • upper-alpha (for producing ordered lists with labels A, B, C, ...)
  • lower-roman (for producing ordered lists with labels i, ii, iii, ...)
  • upper-roman (for producing ordered lists with labels I, II, III, ...)
If the attribute is omitted, the default is to produce the labels 1, 2, 3, ... (for ordered lists) or plain bullet points (for unordered lists).
<item>
contains one component of a list.
<label>
contains the label associated with an item in a list; in glossaries, marks the term being defined.

Individual list items are tagged with <item>. The first <item> may optionally be preceded by a <head>, which gives a heading for the list. The numbering of a list may be omitted (if reconstructible), indicated using the n attribute on each item, or (rarely) tagged as content using the <label> element. In order to achieve the same result with different browsers, the value of n should be greater than 0.

4.6.2. Examples of lists

Example 1

<list>  <head>An unordered list</head>  <item>First item in list</item>  <item>Second item in list</item>  <item>Third item in list</item></list>

An unordered list

  • First item in list
  • Second item in list
  • Third item in list

Example 2

<list type="ordered">  <head>An ordered list</head>  <item>First item in list</item>  <item>Second item in list</item>  <item>Third item in list</item></list>

An ordered list

  1. First item in list
  2. Second item in list
  3. Third item in list

Example 3

<list type="ordered">  <head>An ordered list with controlled numbering </head>  <item n="3">First item in list</item>  <item>Second item in list</item>  <item>Third item in list</item></list>

An ordered list with controlled numbering

  1. First item in list
  2. Second item in list
  3. Third item in list

Example 4

<list type="orderedrend="lower-alpha">  <head>An ordered list with letters for labels</head>  <item>First item in list</item>  <item>Second item in list</item>  <item>Third item in list</item></list>

An ordered list with letters for labels

  1. First item in list
  2. Second item in list
  3. Third item in list

Example 5

<list type="orderedrend="lower-alpha">  <head>An ordered list with controlled lettering </head>  <item n="9">First item in list</item>  <item>Second item in list</item>  <item>Third item in list</item></list>

An ordered list with controlled lettering

  1. First item in list
  2. Second item in list
  3. Third item in list

Example 6

<list type="gloss">  <head>A glossary list</head>  <label>One</label>  <item>First item in list</item>  <label>Two</label>  <item>Second item in list</item>  <label>Three</label>  <item>Third item in list</item></list>

A glossary list

One
First item in list
Two
Second item in list
Three
Third item in list

The styles should not be mixed in the same list.

Example 7

A simple two-column table may be treated as a glossary list, tagged <list type=gloss>. Here, each item comprises a term and a gloss, marked with <label> and <item> respectively.

<list type="gloss">  <head>Vocabulary</head>  <label>nu</label>  <item>now</item>  <label>lhude</label>  <item>loudly</item>  <label>bloweth</label>  <item>blooms</item>  <label>med</label>  <item>meadow</item>  <label>wude</label>  <item>wood</item>  <label>awe</label>  <item>ewe</item>  <label>lhouth</label>  <item>lows</item>  <label>sterteth</label>  <item>bounds, frisks</item>  <label>verteth</label>  <item lang="lat">pedit</item>  <label>murie</label>  <item>merrily</item>  <label>swik</label>  <item>cease</item>  <label>naver</label>  <item>never</item></list>

The above is rendered as follows:

Vocabulary

nu
now
lhude
loudly
bloweth
blooms
med
meadow
wude
wood
awe
ewe
lhouth
lows
sterteth
bounds, frisks
verteth
pedit
murie
merrily
swik
cease
naver
never

4.6.3. Nested lists

Lists of whatever kind can, of course, nest within list items to any depth required. Here, for example, a glossary list contains two items, each of which is itself a simple list:

<list type="gloss">  <label>EVIL</label>  <item>   <list type="simple">    <item>I am cast upon a horrible desolate island, void of all hope of        recovery.</item>    <item>I am singled out and separated as it were from all the world to be        miserable.</item>    <item>I am divided from mankind &amp;#8212; a solitaire; one banished from        human society.</item></list> <!-- end of first nested list --></item>  <label>GOOD</label>  <item>   <list type="simple">    <item>But I am alive; and not drowned, as all my ship's company were.</item>    <item>But I am singled out, too, from all the ship's crew, to be spared from        death...</item>    <item>But I am not starved, and perishing on a barren place, affording no        sustenances....</item></list> <!-- end of second nested list --></item></list> <!-- end of glossary list -->

The above is rendered as follows:

EVIL
  • I am cast upon a horrible desolate island, void of all hope of recovery.
  • I am singled out and separated as it were from all the world to be miserable.
  • I am divided from mankind - a solitaire; one banished from human society.
GOOD
  • But I am alive; and not drowned, as all my ship's company were.
  • But I am singled out, too, from all the ship's crew, to be spared from death...
  • But I am not starved, and perishing on a barren place, affording no sustenances....

4.7. Tables

The following elements are provided for describing tables:
<table>
contains text displayed in tabular form, in rows and columns.
<row>
contains one row of a table. Attributes include:
role
indicates the kind of information held in the cells of this row. This attribute should have the value label for labels or descriptive information, and data for actual data values. If omitted, it defaults to data.
<cell>
contains one cell of a table. Attributes include:
role
indicates the kind of information held in the cell. This attribute should have the value label for labels or descriptive information, and data for actual data values. If omitted, it defaults to data.
cols
indicates the number of columns occupied by this cell. If omitted, it defaults to 1.
rows
indicates the number of rows occupied by this cell. If omitted, it defaults to 1.

The <table> element can also take the align, summary, width, border, frame, rules, cellspacing and cellpadding attributes defined in HTML, and the conversion to HTML will pass them straight through.

4.7.1. Making your table accessible

Caution is advised when using tables as it is very easy to make them inaccessible to users of alternative technologies e.g. screen readers. It is your responsibility to make sure that any table used is comprehensible when it is linearised and that it contains suitable accessibility attributes.

Screen readers linearise tables when they are reading the content out to the user. This means that if you have failed to take this into account when designing your table, the screen reader user will not understand the content of your table. To check to see how your table will be read out, go to http://wave.webaim.org/. Run your page containing the table through this online checker. It will show you how the table will be read to a screen reader user.

All tables should be given the summary attribute regardless of whether they are for data or page layout. For data tables a short summary of the table content must be added for accessibility. Where a table is used for layout, the summary attribute is included, but left empty.

Here is an example:

<table>  <head>table shows the rise and fall of mortality figures during the plague</head>  <row role="label">   <cell/>   <cell cols="3">years</cell></row>  <row role="label">   <cell/>   <cell>1</cell>   <cell>2</cell>   <cell>3</cell></row>  <row>   <cell role="label">St. Leonard's, Shoreditch</cell>   <cell>64</cell>   <cell>84</cell>   <cell>119</cell></row>  <row>   <cell role="label">St. Botolph's, Bishopsgate</cell>   <cell>65</cell>   <cell>105</cell>   <cell>116</cell></row>  <row>   <cell role="label">St. Giles's, Cripplegate</cell>   <cell>213</cell>   <cell>421</cell>   <cell>554</cell></row></table>

The above is rendered as:

Table 1. table shows the rise and fall of mortality figures during the plague
years
123
St. Leonard's, Shoreditch 64 84 119
St. Botolph's, Bishopsgate 65 105 116
St. Giles's, Cripplegate 213 421 554

4.7.2. Making your table sortable

4.7.2.1. Normal use

If a <table> element has a rend attribute with the value tablesorter, the table will be rendered with the cells of the first column sorted and with buttons on each column that enable the person viewing the page to sort the table on another column.

<table rend="tablesorter"> ... </table>

Here is an example of what can be done:

Table 2. table shows a use of the tablesorter rend (derived from an example at http://tablesorter.com/docs/)
First Name   Last Name   Age   Total   Discount   Difference   Date and timeISOUK 1UK 2
Peter Parker 28 £9.99 20.9% +12.1 Sep 9, 2002 8:14 AM 2002-09-09 09-09-2002 09/09/2002
John Good 33 £19.99 125% +12 Jan 12, 2003 5:14 AM 2003-01-12 12-01-2003 12/01/2003
Clark Kent 18 £15.89 44% -26 Jan 18, 2001 11:14 AM 2001-01-18 18-01-2001 18/01/2001
Bruce Almighty 45 £153.19 44.7% +77 Sep 10, 2002 9:12 AM 2002-09-10 10-09-2002 10/09/2002
Bruce Evans 22 £13.19 11% -100.9 Sep 1, 2002 9:12 AM 2002-09-01 01-09-2002 01/09/2002

The above can be achieved using the following TEI:

<table rend="tablesorter">  <head>table shows a user of the tablesorter rend (derived from an example at http://tablesorter.com/docs/)</head>  <row role="label">   <cell>First Name&amp;#160;&amp;#160;&amp;#160;</cell>   <cell>Last Name&amp;#160;&amp;#160;&amp;#160;</cell>   <cell>Age&amp;#160;&amp;#160;&amp;#160;</cell>   <cell>Total&amp;#160;&amp;#160;&amp;#160;</cell>   <cell>Discount&amp;#160;&amp;#160;&amp;#160;</cell>   <cell>Difference&amp;#160;&amp;#160;&amp;#160;</cell>   <cell>Date and time</cell>   <cell>ISO</cell>   <cell>UK 1</cell>   <cell>UK 2</cell></row>  <row>   <cell>Peter</cell>   <cell>Parker</cell>   <cell>28</cell>   <cell>£9.99</cell>   <cell>20.9%</cell>   <cell>+12.1</cell>   <cell>Sep 9, 2002 8:14 AM</cell>   <cell>2002-09-09</cell>   <cell>09-09-2002</cell>   <cell>09/09/2002</cell></row>  <row>   <cell>John</cell>   <cell>Good</cell>   <cell>33</cell>   <cell>£19.99</cell>   <cell>125%</cell>   <cell>+12</cell>   <cell>Jan 12, 2003 5:14 AM</cell>   <cell>2003-01-12</cell>   <cell>12-01-2003</cell>   <cell>12/01/2003</cell></row>  <row>   <cell>Clark</cell>   <cell>Kent</cell>   <cell>18</cell>   <cell>£15.89</cell>   <cell>44%</cell>   <cell>-26</cell>   <cell>Jan 18, 2001 11:14 AM</cell>   <cell>2001-01-18</cell>   <cell>18-01-2001</cell>   <cell>18/01/2001</cell></row>  <row>   <cell>Bruce</cell>   <cell>Almighty</cell>   <cell>45</cell>   <cell>£153.19</cell>   <cell>44.7%</cell>   <cell>+77</cell>   <cell>Sep 10, 2002 9:12 AM</cell>   <cell>2002-09-10</cell>   <cell>10-09-2002</cell>   <cell>10/09/2002</cell></row>  <row>   <cell>Bruce</cell>   <cell>Evans</cell>   <cell>22</cell>   <cell>£13.19</cell>   <cell>11%</cell>   <cell>-100.9</cell>   <cell>Sep 1, 2002 9:12 AM</cell>   <cell>2002-09-01</cell>   <cell>01-09-2002</cell>   <cell>01/09/2002</cell></row></table>
4.7.2.2. Customising tablesorter

There are two ways in which the use of tablesorter can be customised. You will also find the documentation for tablesorter useful.

4.7.2.2.1. Customising tablesorter: for specific tables

This is appropriate if you want to do your own customisation of tablesorter for specific tables that occur in a TEI file.

In the teiHeader of the TEI file, you provide JavaScript like the following:

<html:script type="text/javascript"> var someOtherTextExtraction = function(node) { var anchortext = node.innerHTML.indexOf("--anchor--"); if ( anchortext == -1 ) { return node.innerHTML; } else { return node.innerHTML.substring(anchortext + 15); } } $(document).ready(function() { $table = $(".tablesorternoinitcode").tablesorter( {dateFormat: 'uk', sortList: [[0,0]], textExtraction: someOtherTextExtraction} ); } ); </html:script>

And you alter the table to have the following rends:

<table rend="tablesorter tablesorternoinitcode"> ... </table>

Gotcha: if you do provide a <html:script> element, remember to define the html namespace. For more details, see the section of this document labelled Using HTML elements in a TEI file.

The above assumes you want to do the same initialisation code for each table. If you want different initialisation code for some of the tables, add another value to the rend attribute of each table:

<table   rend="tablesorter tablesorternoinitcode tableone"> ... </table>

and refer to this value (rather than tablesorternoinitcode) in the initialisation code:

$table = $(".tableone").tablesorter(

The tablesorternoinitcode must still be present in the rend. It is being used to indicate that you do not want the XSL to generate the default initialisation code.

4.7.2.2.2. Customising tablesorter: for all tables of a site

This is appropriate if you want a micro site to have full control of the customisation of tablesorter.

The file oucsstandard.xsl has the following definition for the template outputTableSorterInitCode. In the XSL for the micro site, you define a template that overrides this.

<xsl:template name="outputTableSorterInitCode"> <script type="text/javascript"> var GTSTextExtraction = function(node) { var anchortext = node.innerHTML.indexOf("--anchor--"); if ( anchortext == -1 ) { return node.innerHTML; } else { return node.innerHTML.substring(anchortext + 15); } } $(document).ready(function() { $table = $(".tablesorter:not(.tablesorternoinitcode)").tablesorter( {dateFormat: 'uk', sortList: [[0,0]], textExtraction: GTSTextExtraction} ); } ); </script> <xsl:call-template name="outputLinebreak"/> </xsl:template>

4.8. Figures and Graphics

Not all the components of a document are necessarily textual. The most straight forward text will often contain diagrams or illustrations, to say nothing of documents in which image and text are inextricably intertwined, or electronic resources in which the two are complementary. This poses accessibility issues for users who cannot see the images. What are they? Are they important to the text, or just page decoration? Is the image a graph or simple picture? Has the author provided extra information about the graphic for those that cannot see it? If you do not provide alternative text for graphics or other accessibiity features in the page coding, the page will be inaccessible to some visitors.

The following tags and attributes are used to add images to web pages:

<figure>
marks the spot at which a graphic is to be inserted in a document. Attributes include:
url
The location and file name of a graphic.
width
The width to which the graphic should be scaled. If omitted, it defaults to the width of the graphic.
height
The height to which the graphic should be scaled. If omitted, it defaults to the height of the graphic.
scale
The extent which the graphic should be scaled (eg 0.5). If omitted, it defaults to 1.
<figDesc>
contains a textual description of the appearance or content of a graphic, essential for accessible graphics.

A picture is inserted into a document using the url attribute of the <figure> element:

<figure url="fezziPic.png">  <head>Mr Fezziwig's Ball</head>  <figDesc>A Cruikshank engraving showing Mr Fezziwig leading a group of    revellers.</figDesc></figure>

Usually, a graphic will have at the least an identifying title, which should be encoded using the <head> element. Images which are given a head tag have this text automatically converted to a figure caption and are numbered sequentially throughout the document. It is also essential to include a brief description of the image using <figDesc>. If the image is difficult to describe in just a few words, you should provide an alternative page where a full account of the image can be given to the user: this extra information should be provided via a [d] link. These are normal url links to normal web pages. By convention the [d] link should be provided next to the image in question; users needing greater detail about a given image will click on the [d] link for more information.

If the image is for decoration only (very rare on OUCS pages), it is still necessary to include the <figDesc> element in your document, but in this case it should be left blank. By convention the image is then considered just page decoration and unimportant to the reader.

If you want to control the way text flows around an image, use a rend value, as described in the Rends section.

4.9. Getting a TEI file to display a newsfeed

A newsfeed can be displayed by putting a <xptr> element with a rend of rss and a type of transclude inside a <p> element. The url attribute has the URL of the newsfeed. Our XSL can cope with newsfeeds written in RSS 2.0, RSS 1.0 and Atom 1.0.

<p> <xptr rend="rss" type="transclude" url="http://newsrss.bbc.co.uk/rss/newsonline_uk_edition/front_page/rss.xml" /> </p>

This will produce output like the following:

US troops in Poland for exercisesA first US contingent arrives in Poland for military exercises amid heightened tensions with Russia over Ukraine.
Police make Syria appeal to UK womenBritish counter-terrorism police chiefs are making an unprecedented appeal to Muslim women to urge men against travelling to possibly fight in Syria.
Duchess of Cornwall's brother diesThe Duchess of Cornwall's brother, Mark Shand, dies in a New York hospital after sustaining a serious head injury in a fall.
Hamas and Fatah declare end to riftRival Palestinian factions Fatah and Hamas announce a reconciliation deal, saying they will seek to form a unity government in the coming weeks.
Lib Dems 'won't back minority rule'Senior Lib Dem Danny Alexander rules out suggestions his party could support a minority Labour or Tory government after the next election.
Three children found dead in LondonA woman believed to be the mother of three children who were found dead at a south-west London home is arrested on suspicion of murder.
Cancer teen hits £1m charity targetA teenage blogger with terminal cancer raises more than £1m for charity after posting his final message to followers.
Madeleine police probe 18 break-insUK police investigating Madeleine McCann's disappearance are looking at 18 potentially linked cases involving a lone intruder breaking into holiday villas in the Algarve, Portugal.
Ecclestone trial to begin in GermanyFormula 1 boss Bernie Ecclestone goes on trial on bribery charges in the German city of Munich, and could face 10 years in jail if convicted.
Asylum housing badly managed - MPsA Home Office scheme resulted in asylum seekers being placed in "unacceptably poor" housing, the Commons Public Accounts Committee says.

By default, 10 items of the feed will get output together with an RSS icon that allows people to subscribe to the newsfeed.

Gotcha: the web page will not change when new items get added to the feed unless you arrange for your page not to be cached by AxKit. Please contact webmaster@oucs.ox.ac.uk to get this done.

4.9.1. rsssummary gives a different style of output

Other components can be added to the rend to control what gets output and how it gets output.

A different style of output is delivered if you add rsssummary to the rend:

<p> <xptr rend="rss rsssummary" type="transclude" url="http://newsrss.bbc.co.uk/rss/newsonline_uk_edition/front_page/rss.xml" /> </p>

This will produce output like the following:

US troops in Poland for exercisesA first US contingent arrives in Poland for military exercises amid heightened tensions with Russia over Ukraine.
Police make Syria appeal to UK womenBritish counter-terrorism police chiefs are making an unprecedented appeal to Muslim women to urge men against travelling to possibly fight in Syria.
Duchess of Cornwall's brother diesThe Duchess of Cornwall's brother, Mark Shand, dies in a New York hospital after sustaining a serious head injury in a fall.
Hamas and Fatah declare end to riftRival Palestinian factions Fatah and Hamas announce a reconciliation deal, saying they will seek to form a unity government in the coming weeks.
Lib Dems 'won't back minority rule'Senior Lib Dem Danny Alexander rules out suggestions his party could support a minority Labour or Tory government after the next election.
Three children found dead in LondonA woman believed to be the mother of three children who were found dead at a south-west London home is arrested on suspicion of murder.
Cancer teen hits £1m charity targetA teenage blogger with terminal cancer raises more than £1m for charity after posting his final message to followers.
Madeleine police probe 18 break-insUK police investigating Madeleine McCann's disappearance are looking at 18 potentially linked cases involving a lone intruder breaking into holiday villas in the Algarve, Portugal.
Ecclestone trial to begin in GermanyFormula 1 boss Bernie Ecclestone goes on trial on bribery charges in the German city of Munich, and could face 10 years in jail if convicted.
Asylum housing badly managed - MPsA Home Office scheme resulted in asylum seekers being placed in "unacceptably poor" housing, the Commons Public Accounts Committee says.

4.9.2. rsslimit-all outputs all items and rssnoimage omits the RSS icon

Suppose you want all the items of the feed to be output but you do not want the RSS icon:

<p> <xptr rend="rss rssnoimage rsslimit-all" type="transclude" url="http://newsrss.bbc.co.uk/rss/newsonline_uk_edition/front_page/rss.xml" /> </p>

This will produce output like the following:

US troops in Poland for exercisesA first US contingent arrives in Poland for military exercises amid heightened tensions with Russia over Ukraine.
Police make Syria appeal to UK womenBritish counter-terrorism police chiefs are making an unprecedented appeal to Muslim women to urge men against travelling to possibly fight in Syria.
Duchess of Cornwall's brother diesThe Duchess of Cornwall's brother, Mark Shand, dies in a New York hospital after sustaining a serious head injury in a fall.
Hamas and Fatah declare end to riftRival Palestinian factions Fatah and Hamas announce a reconciliation deal, saying they will seek to form a unity government in the coming weeks.
Lib Dems 'won't back minority rule'Senior Lib Dem Danny Alexander rules out suggestions his party could support a minority Labour or Tory government after the next election.
Three children found dead in LondonA woman believed to be the mother of three children who were found dead at a south-west London home is arrested on suspicion of murder.
Cancer teen hits £1m charity targetA teenage blogger with terminal cancer raises more than £1m for charity after posting his final message to followers.
Madeleine police probe 18 break-insUK police investigating Madeleine McCann's disappearance are looking at 18 potentially linked cases involving a lone intruder breaking into holiday villas in the Algarve, Portugal.
Ecclestone trial to begin in GermanyFormula 1 boss Bernie Ecclestone goes on trial on bribery charges in the German city of Munich, and could face 10 years in jail if convicted.
Asylum housing badly managed - MPsA Home Office scheme resulted in asylum seekers being placed in "unacceptably poor" housing, the Commons Public Accounts Committee says.
Jets scrambled over Russian planesRAF fighter jets were scrambled to investigate two Russian military aircraft spotted approaching UK airspace, the Ministry of Defence (MoD) says.
Facebook earnings surge on mobile adsFacebook reports growing earnings on surging mobile advertising revenue as chief finance officer David Ebersman prepares to leave.
Madeleine 'clues' and Mark Shand death - papersA police update in the hunt for missing Madeleine McCann and the death of the brother of the Duchess of Cornwall after a fall in New York attract front page headlines.
Led Zeppelin unleash unheard workLegendary rock group Led Zeppelin make public two previously unheard recordings.
Complaints mount over Jamaica InnThe number of viewer complaints over the audibility of BBC One drama Jamaica Inn escalates, with the second episode seeing a decline in ratings following Monday's debut instalment.
Real Madrid 1-0 Bayern MunichKarim Benzema's goal gives Real Madrid the advantage as holders Bayern Munich lose semi-final first leg in Spain.
Weight concerns behind Phelps returnLegendary Olympic swimmer Michael Phelps says he is coming out of retirement because of concerns over his weight.
Farbrace named as England assistantPaul Farbrace is confirmed as England's new assistant coach to Peter Moores after quitting as Sri Lanka head coach.
Man Utd believe Moyes timing rightManchester United reject "unprofessional" claim, insisting they did not want to search for a successor behind David Moyes's back.
Liverpool reveal Anfield expansion planLiverpool plan to redevelop parts of Anfield to increase the ground's capacity to around 59,000.
UK government hits borrowing targetThe UK government borrowed £107.7bn in the financial year to April 2014, lower than the amount it borrowed the previous year.
VIDEO: Money on wheels: Banking goes mobileUK banks are expanding their use of mobile branches. Brian Milligan reports on the new banks on wheels.
UKIP angry over rival party's nameUKIP says it is "extremely unhappy" about the name of another Eurosceptic party contesting the European elections.
VIDEO: Lib Dems 'won't back minority rule'Senior Liberal Democrat Danny Alexander says the Lib Dems would be willing to renew their coalition with the Conservatives, but would not support a minority government.
Breast cancer drug price cut urgedCampaigners urge pharmaceutical giant Roche to lower the cost of a pioneering breast cancer drug as the NHS prepares to rejects its use on price grounds.
VIDEO: Package holidays blamed for cancer riseThe most dangerous form of skin cancer is now five times more common than it was in the 1970s.
'Trojan Horse' probe schools namedA list of the schools Ofsted has been sent in to inspect over an alleged plot by Muslim hard-liners to seize control of governing bodies is published.
VIDEO: Schools improving maths with snookerSnooker World Champion Steve Davis is taking his love of the sport into schools in the hope of improving students' maths skills.
NYPD Twitter campaign 'backfires'Twitter users bombard the New York Police department with images depicting police aggression in the latest social media campaign to go awry.
VIDEO: Hands-on with Microsoft's CortanaMicrosoft's natural language expert explains how he breathed life into the firm's Halo-inspired virtual assistant Cortana.
Asteroid impact risks 'underplayed'A visualisation showing where sizeable asteroids have hit the Earth in recent years has been released by the B612 Foundation.
AUDIO: Migrant birds 'shot as trophies'Wildlife expert Chris Packham and Sergei Golovkin from Malta's Wild Birds Regulation Unit discuss the number of illegal bird hunters operating in Malta.
Jodie Foster marries girlfriendUS actress Jodie Foster marries her girlfriend, Alexandra Hedison, the actress's representative confirms.
VIDEO: Mirren: I'd love to play JulietDame Helen Mirren has revealed she always wanted to play Shakespeare's Juliet, but was never given the chance.
What are the hazards facing a plane stowaway?The 16-year-old boy who flew in a wheel well of a plane from California to Hawaii appeared to defy the odds.
Should the UK have more bank holidays?Does the UK have enough bank holidays, asks Anthony Reuben.
'Revenge attack' caused fire deathsA fire which killed four members of the same family was a revenge attack on the wrong house, a jury is told.
Victim would be 'proud of Gerrard'Steven Gerrard's cousin, who was the youngest victim of the Hillsborough disaster, would have been "very proud" of the England captain, an inquest hears.
Plan to end corroboration on holdControversial plans to end the need for evidence in Scottish criminal trials to come from two sources are put on hold for at least a year.
Yes vote 'boon' for northern EnglandScotland's first minister Alex Salmond insists Scottish independence would be a boon for the north of England because it would rebalance the UK economy.
Adams 'gave IRA bomb order' - claimA former IRA member makes new allegations about Gerry Adams, claiming the Sinn Féin leader ordered him to transport explosives to Great Britain for a bombing campaign in 1980.
Gang with golf clubs attack trioA hate crime in east Belfast in which three people were attacked by a gang armed with golf clubs is being investigated by police.
Men win sex discrimination pay caseEighteen men unhappy at being paid less than their female colleagues win an equal pay claim against a university.
Rhys Jones withdraws from uni roleGriff Rhys Jones withdraws from becoming Cardiff University's chancellor just two weeks after an embarrassing debacle in which his appointment was delayed at the last minute.
S Sudan president sacks army chiefSouth Sudan's president sacks the head of the national army amid reports of military setbacks - including rebels seizing the oil hub of Bentiu.
Deadly car bomb strikes NairobiFour people, two of them police, are killed in the Kenyan capital Nairobi by a car bomb outside a police station.
Obama pledges Japan islands supportUS President Barack Obama tells Japan that islands it disputes with China are covered by a bilateral defence treaty, as he begins an Asian tour.
Everest Sherpas discuss boycottSherpa guides in Nepal are meeting climbers at Everest base camp to decide whether to continue ascents after an avalanche on Friday killed 16 of their colleagues.
Turkey: Armenia killings 'inhumane'Turkey's Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdogan offers condolences for the first time for the mass killings of Armenians under Ottoman rule during WWI.
EU in slow progress on deficit cutsEU member countries have cut new government borrowing, but total debt continues to rise, European Commission figures show.
Dancer's death sparks Rio clashesWeeks before the World Cup, deadly clashes break out in the Brazilian city of Rio after the body of a young man is found, allegedly beaten by police.
Bogota mayor Petro reinstalledColombian President Juan Manuel Santos reinstates the ousted mayor of Bogota, Gustavo Petro, to his post following a court order to that effect.
Iran replaces prison service chiefThe head of Iran's prison service is replaced following allegations that political prisoners were beaten by guards at Tehran's Evin jail last week.
Lebanese MPs fail to elect presidentMembers of Lebanon's parliament fail to elect a new president at the first attempt before Michel Suleiman's six-year term expires on 25 May.
Chelsea Manning granted name changeThe soldier who leaked US government documents to Wikileaks is granted the right to legally change her name from Bradley to Chelsea.
Primark to open its first US storesClothing retailer Primark is to open its first US stores, beginning with a 70,000 sq-ft shop in Boston.
Day in pictures: 23 April 2014News photos from past 24 hours: 23 April
In pictures: divers search South Korea ferryDivers search South Korea ferry
In pictures: Rural muralsHuge murals in Dumfries and Galloway
In pictures: Garcia Marquez tributesMemorials Nobel laureate Gabriel Garcia Marquez
Day in pictures: 22 April 2014News photos from past 24 hours: 22 April
In pictures: Easter celebrationsChristians mark Easter Sunday
Day in pictures: 21 April 2014News photos from past 24 hours: 21 April
Week in pictures: 12-18 April 2014News photographs from around the world
VIDEO: House of CommonsThe PM is challenged over his support for Maria Miller following a row over her expenses.
VIDEO: One man's bid to make kindness coolBBC News hears from a man carrying out a daily random act of kindness or 'RAK Nomination'.
VIDEO: NYPD's twitter campaign backfiresNYPD asked followers to tweet a photo of themselves with officers and add the hashtag "myNYPD" as part of a social media campaign.
VIDEO: Three children found dead in LondonA woman believed to be the mother of three children found dead at a south-west London home has been arrested on suspicion of murder.
VIDEO: Horror of S Sudan massacre filmedThe White House has strongly condemned the massacre of civilians in South Sudan calling it a betrayal of the people by their leaders.
VIDEO: Tribute to youngest Hillsborough victimThe mother of the Hillsborough disaster's youngest victim has said he would have been ''very proud'' of his cousin, England Captain Steven Gerrard.
VIDEO: Russia in new Ukraine attack threatMoscow has again warned that it will retaliate if it judges that the interests of Russian people are being threatened in Ukraine.
VIDEO: Andy Murray in tears at Stirling awardTennis star Andy Murray has been awarded the freedom of Stirling in a ceremony which made the Wimbledon champion break down in tears.
VIDEO: Volunteers join Ukraine's border guardThousands of Ukrainian soldiers have been located on the border with Russia, joined by enthusiastic volunteer defenders.
Eight arguments about whether the UK is a Christian countryWhat is the evidence that the UK is a Christian country?
A tour of Shakespeare's EnglandWhat do the Bard's favourite haunts look like today?
The ways tattoos can get you into troubleThe ways tattoos can get you into trouble
Is Louis van Gaal Man Utd's saviour?Is Louis Van Gaal Man Utd's saviour?
Why Palestinians love St GeorgeWhy St George is a hero on the West Bank
Danger of London's 'hidden homes'Thousands of people in London are living in hidden homes
Are gardeners wrong to put 'crocks' in plant pots?Is it wrong to put 'crocks' in plant pots?
Money on wheels: Banking goes mobileThe old technology bringing your bank branch to you
Anatomy of the cost of a new drugWhy do new treatments cost so much?
Is the UK becoming more productive?UK productivity may be up – but what does it mean?
Are late night brawls a thing of the past?Are late night brawls a thing of the past?

4.9.3. rsslimit-2 outputs two items and rssbrief just outputs the titles

Suppose you just want the titles and you only want two items output:

<p> <xptr rend="rss rssbrief rsslimit-2" type="transclude" url="http://newsrss.bbc.co.uk/rss/newsonline_uk_edition/front_page/rss.xml" /> </p>

This will produce output like the following:

US troops in Poland for exercises
Police make Syria appeal to UK women

4.9.4. jsdate-XXXX outputs the date the item was published

If you also want the date when the item was published, you can use:

<p> <xptr rend="jsdate-[d_F_Y] rss rssbrief rsslimit-2" type="transclude" url="http://newsrss.bbc.co.uk/rss/newsonline_uk_edition/front_page/rss.xml" /> </p>

Here the rend attribute has a component that starts with jsdate-. This is followed by some notation (e.g., [d_F_Y]) that indicates how you want the date formatted. It uses the same notation that is used by PHP for its date function with the addition of one character: a _ means generate a space.

The date is output in a <span> that has a class of rssdate and the default CSS hides any such span. So you will also need to define some CSS to ensure the date is displayed:

<html:style type="text/css"> .rssdate { display: inline; padding-left: 10px; } </html:style>

This will produce output like the following:

US troops in Poland for exercises
Police make Syria appeal to UK women

Here's another example. The TEI elements:

<p> <xptr rend="jsdate-l,_F_jS,_Y rss rssnoimage rsslimit-2" type="transclude" url="http://newsrss.bbc.co.uk/rss/newsonline_uk_edition/front_page/rss.xml" /> </p>

will produce output like the following:

US troops in Poland for exercisesA first US contingent arrives in Poland for military exercises amid heightened tensions with Russia over Ukraine.
Police make Syria appeal to UK womenBritish counter-terrorism police chiefs are making an unprecedented appeal to Muslim women to urge men against travelling to possibly fight in Syria.

4.10. Using HTML elements in a TEI file

Although TEI is a rich language so that most of what can be coded in HTML can also be coded in TEI, there are occasions when you may want to use some HTML in a TEI document.

If you wish to do this, you need to introduce a namespace that you can use to say that a particular element belongs to HTML rather than to TEI. Usually, the name html is used for this namespace.

Somewhere you have to indicate which name you are using. Usually, this is done by replacing the first line of the file:
<TEI.2>
by:
<TEI.2 xmlns:html="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml">
You can then use an HTML element (e.g., the <style> element) by prefixing its name with the namespace html:
<html:style type="text/css"> .overdue: { background-color: red; } </html:style>
Here is another example:
<html:script type="text/javascript"> var GCS_due_date = ""; ... </html:script>

If you want some HTML elements to appear in the <head> element of the HTML that gets generated, you should put these elements between the <fileDesc> and the <revisionDesc> elements (that appear in the <teiHeader>).

Suppose you do wish to add an HTML <style> element. The rules of HTML say the <style> element must finish up in the <head> element of the resulting HTML. So to achieve this, use something like:
... </fileDesc> <html:style type="text/css"> .overdue: { background-color: red; } </html:style> <revisionDesc> ...

4.11. Forms to collect data and send a message

It is possible to provide a form (in a TEI file) that collects some data from a user and sends that data to someone in an e-mail message. There are details about this in a document on FormMail.

4.12. Accessibility of documentation

Accessibility of our documentation is paramount to ensure documents are accessible to all readers and for OUCS to stay on the correct side of the law. It is necessary for all OUCS authors to familiarise themselves with the ways and means to make their documents as accessible as possible.

Authors need to make sure that they follow the following guidelines:

  • do not make links with the text here or click here, make links that mean something out of context of the sentence they are in. Similarly do not use the same titles for lots of different links on a page when they actually point to different places.
  • When using graphics always provide the <figDesc> element. If necessary go the extra step and make a [d] link for longer explanations of figures
  • When using tables, make sure they are comprehensible when they are linearised. Always include the summary attribute regardless of whether the table is for layout or data. The latter requires you to give some details of the table's content.
  • When you have finished making a web page, you can check its accessibility using online services such as those found in the Complete List of Web Accessibility Evaluation Tools (compiled by the Web Accessibility Initiative (WAI)).

Please use these checkers and make any changes required.

5. Specialised Features

5.1. Generated Divisions

Most modern document production systems have the ability to automatically generate whole sections such as a table of contents or an index. The TEI OUCS scheme provides an element to mark the location at which such a generated section should be placed.
<divGen>
indicates the location at which a textual division generated automatically by a text-processing application is to appear. Attributes include:
type
specifies what type of generated text division (e.g. index, table of contents, etc.) is to appear. Sample values include: index (an index is to be generated and inserted at this point), toc (a table of contents), figlist (a list of figures) and tablist (a list of tables).
The <divGen> element can be placed anywhere that a division element would be legal, as in the following example:
<front>  <titlePage> ... </titlePage>  <divGen type="toc"/>  <div type="Preface">   <head>Preface</head> ... </div></front> <body> ... </body> <back>  <div>   <head>Appendix</head> ... </div>  <divGen type="indexn="Index"/></back>

When an index or table of contents is to be encoded (rather than one being generated) for some reason, the <list> element discussed in section 4.6. Lists should be used.

Rends

Rend values can be used to define how an element is rendered on the webpage, for example aligning items to the left or right of a page, allowing text to flow around images or stating that a bit of text should be in italics or red. Some of the more common rends available for use with the OUCS webpages are listed below.

If there is a particular style you need on your pages that is not currently available, please contact webmaster@oucs.ox.ac.uk for help.

Rends for use with images: <figure rend="xxx">
border
places a border around the image.
centre
places then image in the middle of the line. Text breaks and runs above and below.
inline
image appears with the text on either side. Spacing for the line is decided by image height (which means there is space above the text if the image is higher than the text row)
pic-left
floats image to the left in your running text. Text does not break for image but continues to the right of (and under) it.
pic-right
floats image to the right in your running text. Text does not break for image but continues to the left of (and under) it.
spaceimage
adds space around an image. Text runs above and below image+ space.
wrap
image aligns to the left. Text breaks and continues to the right of image
Rends for use with tables: <table rend="xxx">, <row rend="xxx">, <cell rend="xxx">
label
used for cell or row to show they contain labels rather than data.
Note: <row rend=”label”> makes the background light blue whereas <row role=”label"> makes the background grey and the text white and centred
centretext
to make text in a row centred in each cell
green
used for cell to add background colour
red
used for cell to add background colour
yellow
used for cell to add background colour
blue
used for cell to add background colour
Rends for use with lists: <list rend="xxx">
lower-alpha
for ordered list. List items numbered a, b, c etc
lower-roman
for ordered list. List items numbered i, ii, iii etc
upper-alpha
for ordered list. List items numbered A, B, C etc
upper-roman
for ordered list. List items numbered I, II, III, IV etc
no-bullets
List items appear without bullets before them
Rends for use with a block of text: <p rend="xxx"> or <div rend="xxx>
centre
centres text
centretext
centres text
important
text is bold, red
wrap
Used to wrap text around images
green
green text
red
red text
Rends to use with highlighted text: <hi rend="xxx">
bold
makes text bold
italic
makes text italic
small
makes text smaller in size
sup
makes text appear as superscript
sub
makes text appear as subscript
important
makes text red and bold
code
makes text appear in bold courier font
red
makes text red
green
makes text green
Other rends
nosplit
Unusually this is only applied to the TEI.2 element. Used to prevent your document from spliting on the major divs when it is displayed on the web. Very useful if you have lots of small divs that would look odd on their own pages.
new
Used on links when you want the link to open a new window.

Special Characters

Some characters must be treated specially, using character entities:

EntityCharacterDescription
&amp; & ampersand
&quot; " double quotation mark
&lt; < less-than sign
&gt; > greater-than sign
&apos; ' apostrophe

Any other characters which are not on your keyboard can either be entered as numeric entities (see, eg, http://www.tedmontgomery.com/tutorial/HTMLchrc.html) or using UTF-8. How you enter UTF-8 on your keyboard depends on your application or operating system. oXygen, for example, has a facility [Edit/Enter from Character Map] to let you enter characters which are not on the keyboard.