1. Introduction

Today, documents are usually prepared electronically using a word processor such as Word or OpenOffice. Such programs allow their users to make good-looking documents easily and quickly. However, there are problems associated with the multitude of different formats and programs used to produce documents. For instance:

  • users can become locked into specific file formats;
  • conversion to other formats becomes more difficult with time;
  • the storage media used can quickly go out of fashion making document retrieval an expensive specialist service;
  • formats change over time and vendors might not provide conversion mechanisms from old to new formats.

OUCS has adopted an open, vendor independent format approach to maintain our documentation in an accessible and interchangeable format. Our system uses XML or eXtensible Markup Language to store documents. XML allows the user to develop their own rules to code up their documents. However, there are already many different versions of XML rules available so we do not need to develop anything new for OUCS. Our system uses a modified version of the Text Encoding Initiative (TEI) XML for writing documentation.

1.1. TEI and OUCS

The Text Encoding Initiative (TEI) Guidelines are an international and interdisciplinary standard that enables libraries, museums, publishers, and individual scholars to represent a variety of literary and linguistic texts for online research, teaching, and preservation.

The TEI standard is maintained by a consortium of leading institutions and projects worldwide; Oxford is one of these institutions. Two of the major players in the TEI are members of OUCS: Lou Burnard and Sebastian Rahtz. Lou joined the Text Encoding Initiative project as its European Editor back in 1989 (a post he still holds), while Sebastian is one of the consortium's directors and actively develops the TEI itself.

1.2. OUCS Web Site Accessibility

Since 2002 it has been law to provide documents (including web pages) in accessible formats to users of alternative technologies such as screen readers. The relevant legislation is the Special Educational Needs and Disability Act (SENDA) 2001 which is part 4 of the Disability discrimination Act (DDA). This act brought Education establishments into line with commercial providers in the way that they provide information and services to the disabled community.

The W3C organisation have created various standards for web accessibility. These are:

  • Priority 1 (A)
  • Priority 2 (AA)
  • Priority 3 (AAA)

Priority level details

All OUCS pages should reach level 1 standard. The University has decided that its web sites should ideally conform to the level 2 standard and meet as many level 3 points as possible.

The following document includes details on how to make your XML documents accessible to as wide an audience as possible. Please make sure that you follow these accessibility guidelines - it's the LAW!

2. How does the OUCS system work?

The OUCS XML documentation system has six components:

  1. An XML schema, derived from the Text Encoding Initiative, located at http://www.oucs.ox.ac.uk/schemas/tei-oucs.rng
  2. A set of XSLT stylesheets, which can transform document instances to HTML pages; see http://www.tei-c.org/Tools/Stylesheets/
  3. A set of XSLT stylesheets, which can transform document instances into PDF for printing; see http://www.tei-c.org/Tools/Stylesheets/
  4. CSS stylesheets for displaying the XML files directly (http://www.oucs.ox.ac.uk/schemas/tei-oucs.css, which can also be used with some editors), and for enhancing the HTML versions (http://www.oucs.ox.ac.uk/stylesheet/oucs/oucs.css)
  5. The XML text document
  6. The change management system where all the material is stored

Taking each of these parts in turn:

2.1. XML Schema

The rules of the TEI XML format are stored in a schema (we use the RELAXNG schema language) file. This file defines the structure of how XML is to be written and is the key to transforming the text from one format to another. In order to write a valid TEI XML document the schema has to be followed. Luckily there are many XML editors that look after the schema for you and show any errors when the document is tested against the schema.

2.2. XSLT Stylesheets

An XSLT Stylesheet or Extensible Stylesheet Language Transformation Stylesheet is basically a set of rules to process a XML document. It turns an XML rendition of a file into the final version of a file. OUCS uses two versions of XSLT files, one turns an XML file into a web page (HTML format), the other turns XML into PDF format for printing.

2.3. CSS Stylesheets

CSS or Cascading Style Sheets are files containing information on how a document is to be presented e.g. bold, red headings or grey backgrounds. There are two versions used by OUCS: one displays the XML file directly and is fairly simple; the other displays the final web page and is fairly complex.

2.4. Version Control System

This is the method by which documents are stored. OUCS uses an open source system called Subversion to store XML documents. It is not restricted in the type of documents it can accept, allowing us to store just about anything we might need.

3. Getting Started - The Basics

There are a few steps that need to be taken before you can get documents up on the web site. These are outlined below:

Obtain a suitable XML editor
We recommend the cross-platform oXygen editor, for which we have a site licence; see the document on How to use oXygen at OUCS
Obtain a Subversion client
We recommend Syncro SVN, the client which comes with oXygen. Details are given in the document Using the Syncro Subversion client
Obtain a Subversion account
Accounts can be setup by visiting https://svn.oucs.ox.ac.uk/admin/useradmin/
Write your document!
This part is up to you! If you are unsure how to start, open an XML file and save under a different name. After removing the original content of the file, you can now use this file and add your own content as necessary.

Before submitting your file to Subversion, you should check your document's syntax. Most XML editors have facilities to check the validity of your document against your schema. Make any corrections necessary before submitting the file to the main Subversion repository. Also bear in mind that your document should be fully accessible and SENDA compliant.

3.1. A Few Definitions

Elements and Tags
XML documents have lots of elements, one example is the title element. This begins with a start-tag <title> and is closed by the end-tag </title>. Any text between the start and end tags is therefore defined as the title of the document. Most XML tags work in this way: a start tag, some text, followed by an end tag. There are some elements that are self closing (i.e. they have no end tag); where appropriate these will be highlighted later in this document.
Content and Data
Any text between tags is the content of the element. This can be of two forms: the actual information or data; and other elements. Where the two occur together this is termed mixed content.
Attributes

All elements can have additional properties beside the element name and content. These properties are the attributes of an element and they consist of name-value pairs. For example a <div> element can have the attribute id="xxx", where xxx represents a name or number. In the example below, the id is 'email':

<div id="email">  <head>Configuring your email client</head>  <p> text....</p> </div>
XML structure and nesting tags

XML is very strict on its element structure, especially compared to HTML. In XML, tags usually have to be started and ended. They must be nested properly and used in the correct place within the document hierarchy. This generally means that you cannot open a new tag e.g. <p> without closing the previous <p> tag. (N.B. there are exceptions to this rule e.g. self-closing tags).

3.2. Dissecting the OUCS XML Template

Viewing the OUCS template code in your editor shows the document structure. The complete page structure is shown below:

<TEI.2>  <teiHeader>   <fileDesc>    <titleStmt>     <title>Markup for OUCS documents</title>     <author>Sebastian Rahtz</author>    </titleStmt>    <editionStmt>     <edition>      <date>May 2009</date>     </edition>    </editionStmt>    <publicationStmt>     <authority>webmaster@it.ox.ac.uk</authority>    </publicationStmt>    <sourceDesc>     <p>This is the master version of an original document.</p>    </sourceDesc>   </fileDesc>   <revisionDesc>    <change>     <date>$LastChangedDate: 2014-04-23 10:28:49 +0100 (Wed, 23 Apr 2014) $</date>     <respStmt>      <name>$LastChangedBy: publish-button $</name>     </respStmt>     <item>$LastChangedRevision: 157843 $</item>    </change>   </revisionDesc>  </teiHeader>  <text>   <body> <!-- Your text goes in here.... -->   </body>  </text> </TEI.2>

First comes the declaration that the file is a TEI document <TEI.2>. This is effectively the start tag for the document, all other elements must be correctly arranged or nested inside the <TEI.2> tags for the document to be valid TEI XML.

The first element inside <TEI.2> is the <teiHeader> element. Everything within this element is part of the document's Metadata (Metadata is data about the document, e.g. its title, author, creation date etc.). OUCS documents have a number of fields in the <teiHeader>; some have to be manually completed, such as the title of the document, while others are automatically added on document submission e.g. Last changed by information. Usually, when writing your own documents, you should complete the following metadata elements:

  • title
  • author
  • date

It will also be necessary to complete an extra sections in the header recording who is responsible

  • authority

The end of the metadata is marked by the closing </teiHeader> tag.

After the metadata comes the body of the document. This can be split into three sections:

<front>
contains any prefatory matter (headers, title page, prefaces, dedications, etc.) found before the start of a text proper.
<body>
contains the whole body of a single unitary text, excluding any front or back matter.
<back>
contains any appendices, etc., following the main part of a text.

The majority of OUCS documents only use the body section for the text. This is shown in the next example:

<teiHeader>... </teiHeader> <text>  <body>   <p>Your text goes in here....</p>  </body> </text>

If you do want to include front and/or back additions to your document, the sections are coded in the following manner:

<text>  <front>   <titlePage>    <docTitle>     <titlePart type="main">Markup for OUCS documents</titlePart>    </docTitle>    <docAuthor>Ian Senior</docAuthor>    <docDate>May 2005</docDate>   </titlePage>  </front>  <body>   <p>Your text goes in here....</p>  </body>  <back>   <div id="appendix">    <head>Appendix</head>    <p>More text in here...</p>   </div>  </back> </text>

4. Coding your document

Like HTML, XML relies on elements to code up the document. If you are familiar with coding HTML files the transition to XML should be fairly painless. OUCS XML has many elements available for use, although in any one document only a subset of these will ever be applied. In this section we discuss the elements making up the body of a text.

4.1. Sectioning your text

Your text may be just a series of paragraphs, or these paragraphs may be grouped together into chapters, sections, subsections, etc. In the former case, each paragraph is embedded inside a the <p> element. In the latter case, the <body> may be divided into a series of <div> elements, which may be further subdivided. An example of div structure is shown below:

<div>  <head>This is my heading</head>  <p> This is a paragraph</p>  <div>   <head>This is my inner section heading</head>   <p> This is a paragraph in the inner section</p>  </div> <!--This div closes the inner section--> </div> <!--This div formally closes entire section-->

Sectioning your document has important effects on the OUCS web site. Each div used is processed when the document is converted into html. Major divisions are treated as separate web pages and help to form the basis of the internal page navigation system. Each division is also sequentially numbered: 1, 2, 3 ... Where a div section is within another div, it is treated as a subsection and numbered accordingly e.g. 2.1, 2.2, 2.3....

Sectioning documents also influences the HTML output to browsers. The title of a document is always given the <h1> tag, major divisions are thus given the <h2> tag and minor section divisions are given <h3>, <h4>, <h5> etc. depending on how deep they are nested within the document.

Correct structural markup for documentation is important for accessibility. When documents are marked up in a structured way, they allow users of alternative technologies to discover the main sections and subsections more quickly and more easily. The structure allows users to jump from one section to another, without the need to read all of the information on the page. Documents that do not use structured markup pose a problem (to screen reader users in particular), as it is very difficult to find out what is on a page without reading all of the text. Where structural markup has not been used, the author has often employed styles (bold, italic, etc.) to indicate different sections and headings. While obvious to sighted readers, the structure is lost to screen reader users who must read the page to find out if it is of interest to them.

It is a requirement for authors to structure their documents in an accessible manner: relying on style alone is to be avoided as this results in inaccessible documents.

The following elements can be used to divide up your text:

<p>
marks paragraphs in prose.
<div>
contains a subdivision of the front, body, or back of a text.

When structural divisions smaller than a <div> are necessary, inner <div> elements may be used, without limit to the depth of nesting (see example above).

A div element can have the following three attributes:
type
This indicates the conventional name for this category of text division. Its value might be something like ‘Preface’.
id
This specifies a unique identifier for the division, which may be used for cross references or other links to it, such as a commentary. It is often useful to provide an id attribute for every major structural unit in a text, and to derive the id values in some systematic way, for example by appending a section number to a short code for the title of the work in question.
n
The n attribute specifies a mnemonic short name or number for the division, which can be used to identify it in preference to the id. If a conventional form of reference or abbreviation for the parts of a work already exists (such as the book/chapter/verse pattern of Biblical citations), the n attribute is the place to record it.
The attributes id and n, indeed, are so widely useful that they are allowed on any element in any TEI schema: they are global attributes.

The value of every id attribute must be unique within a document. They may be used to derive the names of HTML pages, so giving sensible mnemonic names is a good idea.

4.2. Headings and Closings

Every <div> may have a title or heading, and (less commonly) a closing such as ‘End of Chapter 1’. The following elements may be used to mark them up:
<head>
contains any heading, for example, the title of a section, or the heading of a list or glossary.
<trailer>
contains a closing title or footer appearing at the end of a division of a text.

Here is an example of their use:

<div>  <head>This is my heading</head>  <p>This is the body of the text</p>  <trailer>   <p>This is the trailer to my text</p>  </trailer> </div>

N.B. At present it is not possible to use the <head> tag without using the <div> tag first.

4.3. Marking Highlighted Phrases

4.3.1. Changes of Typeface, etc.

Highlighted words or phrases are those made visibly different from the rest of the text, typically by a change of type font, handwriting style, or ink color, intended to draw the reader's attention to them.

<hi>
marks a word or phrase as graphically distinct from the surrounding text, for reasons concerning which no claim is made.
Code view:
<hi>example</hi>
Rendered view:
example
Alternatively, where the cause for the highlighting can be identified with confidence, a number of other, more specific, elements are available. All but the first two are OUCS extensions to the standard TEI markup.
<emph>
marks words or phrases which are stressed or emphasized for linguistic or rhetorical effect
Code view:
<emph>example</emph>
Rendered view:
example
<term>
contains a single-word, multi-word or symbolic designation which is regarded as a technical term
Code view:
<term>example</term>
Rendered view:
example
<gi>
An SGML, XML or HTML element name
Code view:
<gi>h1</gi>
Rendered view:
<h1>
<Button>
A button which a user can see
Code view:
<Button>Logout</Button>
Rendered view:
Logout
<Code>
Some sort of computer language code
Code view:
<Code>\textbf{a}$^34$</Code>
Rendered view:
\textbf{a}$^34$
<Command>
The name of a command
Code view:
<Command>tcsh</Command>
Rendered view:
tcsh
<Field>
A labelled input field
Code view:
<Field>Subject</Field>
Rendered view:
Subject
<Filespec>
A file or directory specification of any kind
Code view:
<Filespec>C:\Windows\My Documents</Filespec>
Rendered view:
C:\Windows\My Documents
<Icon>
an icon in a GUI
Code view:
<Icon>Notepad</Icon>
Rendered view:
Notepad
<Input>
Text for a user to type
Code view:
<Input>quota</Input>
Rendered view:
quota
<Key>
A key to press
Code view:
<Key>R</Key>
Rendered view:
<R>
<Keyword>
A keyword in some technical code the user is being asked to write
Code view:
<Keyword>font-family</Keyword>
Rendered view:
font-family
<Label>
The label for a button, radio box, etc.
Code view:
<Label>select to activate account</Label>
Rendered view:
select to activate account
<Link>
The text of a link which is being described
Code view:
<Link>IT Information</Link>
Rendered view:
IT Information
<Menu>
A menu item
Code view:
<Menu>Save as</Menu>
Rendered view:
[Save as]
<Output>
What comes back when you give a command
Code view:
<Output>job completed</Output>
Rendered view:
job completed
<Program>
A simple program listing
Code view:
<Program>i:=0;
j:=-1;</Program>
Rendered view:
i:=0; j:=-1;
<Prompt>
A prompt from the computer
Code view:
<Prompt>password:</Prompt>
Rendered view:
password:
<Screen>
A prettified display of text screenshot
Code view:
<Screen>Thanks!
Your work is complete.</Screen>
Rendered view:
Thanks! Your work is complete.
<Software>
The name of a program
Code view:
<Software>Microsoft Word</Software>
Rendered view:
Microsoft Word
<Value>
A possible value for some option
Code view:
<Value>Times-Roman 10pt</Value>
Rendered view:
Times-Roman 10pt
If you ever really need it, the <lb/> element marks the start of a new (typographic) line.

4.4. Cross References and Links

Explicit cross references or links from one point to another in a text in the same XML document may be encoded using the elements described in section 4.4.1. Simple Cross References. References or links to elements of some other XML document, or to parts of non-XML documents, may be encoded using the TEI extended pointers described in section 4.4.2. Extended Pointers.

Accessibility of your links is important. The text you use can either enhance a user's understanding of where the link will lead, or leave them clueless. The worst phrase you can use for a link is Click Here or simply Here: in both instances the user is left with no clear idea of where the link could lead. This problem is compounded for a screen reader user: they can get lists of all links from any given page, but if the author of the page has just said Click Here or Here, they will get a list consisting of just that. The user will be left stranded on the page with no clear way to move forwards in their search for information.

An accessible link is one that conveys both where the link will go and the information the user is likely to find. By default our system will add a title attribute to any link you make on your page when it is transformed into HTML. However, while this is good practice and a nice failsafe measure, it will only add the same text as the link text. This might be adequate in some circumstances, but to make your links more accessible you should add your own additional text using the n attribute. People browsing with modern visual browsers will see your additional link information when they mouse over your link, and screen reader users will have more information about where the link will take them as the title attribute is read out to them.

4.4.1. Simple Cross References

A cross reference from one point to another within a single document can be encoded using either of the following elements:
<ref>
a reference to another location in the current document usually modified by additional text.
<ptr>
a pointer to another location in the current document.
These elements share the following attribute:
target
specifies the destination of the pointer.

The difference between these two elements is that <ptr> is an empty element, simply marking a point from which a link is to be made, whereas <ref> may contain some text as well --- typically the text of the cross-reference itself. The <ptr> element would be used for a cross reference which is indicated by a symbol or icon, or in an electronic text by a button.

The following two forms, for example, are equivalent:

See especially <ref target="SEC12">section 12 on page 34</ref>.
See especially <ptr target="SEC12"/>.
The value of the target attribute must be present in the current XML document. This implies that the passage or phrase being pointed at must bear an identifier, and must therefore be tagged as an element of some kind. In the following example, the cross reference is to a <div> element:
...see especially <ptr target="SEC12"/>.... ... <div id="SEC12">  <head>Concerning Identifiers... </head> </div>
The id attribute is global (i.e. can be used on any element), which means all elements in a document can be pointed to in this way. In the following example, a paragraph has been given an identifier so that it may be pointed at:
...this is discussed in <ref target="pspec">the paragraph on links</ref> ... <p id="pspec">Links may be made to any kind of element ...</p>

Sometimes the target of a cross reference does not correspond with any particular feature of a text, and so may not be tagged as an element of some kind. If the desired target is simply a point in the current document, the easiest way to mark it is by introducing an <anchor> element at the appropriate spot.

<ptr target="1234"/>.... .... <anchor id="1234"/>

4.4.2. Extended Pointers

The elements <ptr> and <ref> can only be used for cross-references whose targets occur within the same XML document as their source. They can also refer only to XML elements. The elements discussed in this section are not restricted in these ways.
<xptr>
defines a pointer to another location in the current document or an external document.
<xref>
defines a pointer to another location in the current document or an external document, usually modified by additional text or comment.

In addition to the attributes already discussed in section 4.4.1. Simple Cross References above, these elements share the following additional attribute, which is used to specify the target of the cross reference or link:

url
A Web URL specifying the destination

The following example shows how to link to another page and web site

See local information about <xref url="/email/clients/">email clients</xref> or go to <xptr   url="http://www.google.co.uk"   n="go to Google's web site"/>

The above example renders as follows:

See local information about email clients or go to http://www.google.co.uk

To link to a specific section on another page you should use the following syntax:

<xref url="/matlab/#fault_special">faults, problems, or special requests</xref>

4.5. Addresses

The <address> element is used to mark a postal address of any kind. It contains one or more <addrLine> elements, one for each line of the address.
address
contains a postal or other address, for example of a publisher, an organization, or an individual.
addrLine
contains one line of a postal or other address.
Here is a simple example:
<address>  <addrLine>Oxford University Computing Services</addrLine>  <addrLine>13 Banbury Rd</addrLine>  <addrLine>Oxford</addrLine>  <addrLine>OX2 6NN</addrLine> </address>

4.6. Lists

4.6.1. The various kinds of lists

The element <list> is used to mark any kind of list. A list is a sequence of text items, which may be ordered, unordered, or a glossary list. Each item may be preceded by an item label (in a glossary list, this label is the term being defined):
<list>
contains any sequence of items organized as a list. Attributes include:
type
describes the form of the list. This attribute can have the following values:
  • unordered (for lists with bullet-marked items)
  • ordered (for lists with numbered or lettered items)
  • gloss (for lists consisting of a set of technical terms, each marked with a <label> element and accompanied by a gloss or definition marked as an <item>)
If the attribute is omitted, the default is for the list to be an unordered list.
rend
describes how the labels should appear. The rend attribute can have the following values:
  • no-bullets (for producing unordered lists with no bullet points)
  • lower-alpha (for producing ordered lists with labels a, b, c, ...)
  • upper-alpha (for producing ordered lists with labels A, B, C, ...)
  • lower-roman (for producing ordered lists with labels i, ii, iii, ...)
  • upper-roman (for producing ordered lists with labels I, II, III, ...)
If the attribute is omitted, the default is to produce the labels 1, 2, 3, ... (for ordered lists) or plain bullet points (for unordered lists).
<item>
contains one component of a list.
<label>
contains the label associated with an item in a list; in glossaries, marks the term being defined.

Individual list items are tagged with <item>. The first <item> may optionally be preceded by a <head>, which gives a heading for the list. The numbering of a list may be omitted (if reconstructible), indicated using the n attribute on each item, or (rarely) tagged as content using the <label> element. In order to achieve the same result with different browsers, the value of n should be greater than 0.

4.6.2. Examples of lists

Example 1

<list>  <head>An unordered list</head>  <item>First item in list</item>  <item>Second item in list</item>  <item>Third item in list</item> </list>

An unordered list

  • First item in list
  • Second item in list
  • Third item in list

Example 2

<list type="ordered">  <head>An ordered list</head>  <item>First item in list</item>  <item>Second item in list</item>  <item>Third item in list</item> </list>

An ordered list

  1. First item in list
  2. Second item in list
  3. Third item in list

Example 3

<list type="ordered">  <head>An ordered list with controlled numbering </head>  <item n="3">First item in list</item>  <item>Second item in list</item>  <item>Third item in list</item> </list>

An ordered list with controlled numbering

  1. First item in list
  2. Second item in list
  3. Third item in list

Example 4

<list type="orderedrend="lower-alpha">  <head>An ordered list with letters for labels</head>  <item>First item in list</item>  <item>Second item in list</item>  <item>Third item in list</item> </list>

An ordered list with letters for labels

  1. First item in list
  2. Second item in list
  3. Third item in list

Example 5

<list type="orderedrend="lower-alpha">  <head>An ordered list with controlled lettering </head>  <item n="9">First item in list</item>  <item>Second item in list</item>  <item>Third item in list</item> </list>

An ordered list with controlled lettering

  1. First item in list
  2. Second item in list
  3. Third item in list

Example 6

<list type="gloss">  <head>A glossary list</head>  <label>One</label>  <item>First item in list</item>  <label>Two</label>  <item>Second item in list</item>  <label>Three</label>  <item>Third item in list</item> </list>

A glossary list

One
First item in list
Two
Second item in list
Three
Third item in list

The styles should not be mixed in the same list.

Example 7

A simple two-column table may be treated as a glossary list, tagged <list type=gloss>. Here, each item comprises a term and a gloss, marked with <label> and <item> respectively.

<list type="gloss">  <head>Vocabulary</head>  <label>nu</label>  <item>now</item>  <label>lhude</label>  <item>loudly</item>  <label>bloweth</label>  <item>blooms</item>  <label>med</label>  <item>meadow</item>  <label>wude</label>  <item>wood</item>  <label>awe</label>  <item>ewe</item>  <label>lhouth</label>  <item>lows</item>  <label>sterteth</label>  <item>bounds, frisks</item>  <label>verteth</label>  <item lang="lat">pedit</item>  <label>murie</label>  <item>merrily</item>  <label>swik</label>  <item>cease</item>  <label>naver</label>  <item>never</item> </list>

The above is rendered as follows:

Vocabulary

nu
now
lhude
loudly
bloweth
blooms
med
meadow
wude
wood
awe
ewe
lhouth
lows
sterteth
bounds, frisks
verteth
pedit
murie
merrily
swik
cease
naver
never

4.6.3. Nested lists

Lists of whatever kind can, of course, nest within list items to any depth required. Here, for example, a glossary list contains two items, each of which is itself a simple list:

<list type="gloss">  <label>EVIL</label>  <item>   <list type="simple">    <item>I am cast upon a horrible desolate island, void of all hope of        recovery.</item>    <item>I am singled out and separated as it were from all the world to be        miserable.</item>    <item>I am divided from mankind &amp;#8212; a solitaire; one banished from        human society.</item>   </list> <!-- end of first nested list -->  </item>  <label>GOOD</label>  <item>   <list type="simple">    <item>But I am alive; and not drowned, as all my ship's company were.</item>    <item>But I am singled out, too, from all the ship's crew, to be spared from        death...</item>    <item>But I am not starved, and perishing on a barren place, affording no        sustenances....</item>   </list> <!-- end of second nested list -->  </item> </list> <!-- end of glossary list -->

The above is rendered as follows:

EVIL
  • I am cast upon a horrible desolate island, void of all hope of recovery.
  • I am singled out and separated as it were from all the world to be miserable.
  • I am divided from mankind - a solitaire; one banished from human society.
GOOD
  • But I am alive; and not drowned, as all my ship's company were.
  • But I am singled out, too, from all the ship's crew, to be spared from death...
  • But I am not starved, and perishing on a barren place, affording no sustenances....

4.7. Tables

The following elements are provided for describing tables:
<table>
contains text displayed in tabular form, in rows and columns.
<row>
contains one row of a table. Attributes include:
role
indicates the kind of information held in the cells of this row. This attribute should have the value label for labels or descriptive information, and data for actual data values. If omitted, it defaults to data.
<cell>
contains one cell of a table. Attributes include:
role
indicates the kind of information held in the cell. This attribute should have the value label for labels or descriptive information, and data for actual data values. If omitted, it defaults to data.
cols
indicates the number of columns occupied by this cell. If omitted, it defaults to 1.
rows
indicates the number of rows occupied by this cell. If omitted, it defaults to 1.

The <table> element can also take the align, summary, width, border, frame, rules, cellspacing and cellpadding attributes defined in HTML, and the conversion to HTML will pass them straight through.

4.7.1. Making your table accessible

Caution is advised when using tables as it is very easy to make them inaccessible to users of alternative technologies e.g. screen readers. It is your responsibility to make sure that any table used is comprehensible when it is linearised and that it contains suitable accessibility attributes.

Screen readers linearise tables when they are reading the content out to the user. This means that if you have failed to take this into account when designing your table, the screen reader user will not understand the content of your table. To check to see how your table will be read out, go to http://wave.webaim.org/. Run your page containing the table through this online checker. It will show you how the table will be read to a screen reader user.

All tables should be given the summary attribute regardless of whether they are for data or page layout. For data tables a short summary of the table content must be added for accessibility. Where a table is used for layout, the summary attribute is included, but left empty.

Here is an example:

<table>  <head>table shows the rise and fall of mortality figures during the plague</head>  <row role="label">   <cell/>   <cell cols="3">years</cell>  </row>  <row role="label">   <cell/>   <cell>1</cell>   <cell>2</cell>   <cell>3</cell>  </row>  <row>   <cell role="label">St. Leonard's, Shoreditch</cell>   <cell>64</cell>   <cell>84</cell>   <cell>119</cell>  </row>  <row>   <cell role="label">St. Botolph's, Bishopsgate</cell>   <cell>65</cell>   <cell>105</cell>   <cell>116</cell>  </row>  <row>   <cell role="label">St. Giles's, Cripplegate</cell>   <cell>213</cell>   <cell>421</cell>   <cell>554</cell>  </row> </table>

The above is rendered as:

Table 1. table shows the rise and fall of mortality figures during the plague
years
123
St. Leonard's, Shoreditch 64 84 119
St. Botolph's, Bishopsgate 65 105 116
St. Giles's, Cripplegate 213 421 554

4.7.2. Making your table sortable

4.7.2.1. Normal use

If a <table> element has a rend attribute with the value tablesorter, the table will be rendered with the cells of the first column sorted and with buttons on each column that enable the person viewing the page to sort the table on another column.

<table rend="tablesorter"> ... </table>

Here is an example of what can be done:

Table 2. table shows a use of the tablesorter rend (derived from an example at http://tablesorter.com/docs/)
First Name   Last Name   Age   Total   Discount   Difference   Date and timeISOUK 1UK 2
Peter Parker 28 £9.99 20.9% +12.1 Sep 9, 2002 8:14 AM 2002-09-09 09-09-2002 09/09/2002
John Good 33 £19.99 125% +12 Jan 12, 2003 5:14 AM 2003-01-12 12-01-2003 12/01/2003
Clark Kent 18 £15.89 44% -26 Jan 18, 2001 11:14 AM 2001-01-18 18-01-2001 18/01/2001
Bruce Almighty 45 £153.19 44.7% +77 Sep 10, 2002 9:12 AM 2002-09-10 10-09-2002 10/09/2002
Bruce Evans 22 £13.19 11% -100.9 Sep 1, 2002 9:12 AM 2002-09-01 01-09-2002 01/09/2002

The above can be achieved using the following TEI:

<table rend="tablesorter">  <head>table shows a user of the tablesorter rend (derived from an example at http://tablesorter.com/docs/)</head>  <row role="label">   <cell>First Name&amp;#160;&amp;#160;&amp;#160;</cell>   <cell>Last Name&amp;#160;&amp;#160;&amp;#160;</cell>   <cell>Age&amp;#160;&amp;#160;&amp;#160;</cell>   <cell>Total&amp;#160;&amp;#160;&amp;#160;</cell>   <cell>Discount&amp;#160;&amp;#160;&amp;#160;</cell>   <cell>Difference&amp;#160;&amp;#160;&amp;#160;</cell>   <cell>Date and time</cell>   <cell>ISO</cell>   <cell>UK 1</cell>   <cell>UK 2</cell>  </row>  <row>   <cell>Peter</cell>   <cell>Parker</cell>   <cell>28</cell>   <cell>£9.99</cell>   <cell>20.9%</cell>   <cell>+12.1</cell>   <cell>Sep 9, 2002 8:14 AM</cell>   <cell>2002-09-09</cell>   <cell>09-09-2002</cell>   <cell>09/09/2002</cell>  </row>  <row>   <cell>John</cell>   <cell>Good</cell>   <cell>33</cell>   <cell>£19.99</cell>   <cell>125%</cell>   <cell>+12</cell>   <cell>Jan 12, 2003 5:14 AM</cell>   <cell>2003-01-12</cell>   <cell>12-01-2003</cell>   <cell>12/01/2003</cell>  </row>  <row>   <cell>Clark</cell>   <cell>Kent</cell>   <cell>18</cell>   <cell>£15.89</cell>   <cell>44%</cell>   <cell>-26</cell>   <cell>Jan 18, 2001 11:14 AM</cell>   <cell>2001-01-18</cell>   <cell>18-01-2001</cell>   <cell>18/01/2001</cell>  </row>  <row>   <cell>Bruce</cell>   <cell>Almighty</cell>   <cell>45</cell>   <cell>£153.19</cell>   <cell>44.7%</cell>   <cell>+77</cell>   <cell>Sep 10, 2002 9:12 AM</cell>   <cell>2002-09-10</cell>   <cell>10-09-2002</cell>   <cell>10/09/2002</cell>  </row>  <row>   <cell>Bruce</cell>   <cell>Evans</cell>   <cell>22</cell>   <cell>£13.19</cell>   <cell>11%</cell>   <cell>-100.9</cell>   <cell>Sep 1, 2002 9:12 AM</cell>   <cell>2002-09-01</cell>   <cell>01-09-2002</cell>   <cell>01/09/2002</cell>  </row> </table>
4.7.2.2. Customising tablesorter

There are two ways in which the use of tablesorter can be customised. You will also find the documentation for tablesorter useful.

4.7.2.2.1. Customising tablesorter: for specific tables

This is appropriate if you want to do your own customisation of tablesorter for specific tables that occur in a TEI file.

In the teiHeader of the TEI file, you provide JavaScript like the following:

<html:script type="text/javascript"> var someOtherTextExtraction = function(node) { var anchortext = node.innerHTML.indexOf("--anchor--"); if ( anchortext == -1 ) { return node.innerHTML; } else { return node.innerHTML.substring(anchortext + 15); } } $(document).ready(function() { $table = $(".tablesorternoinitcode").tablesorter( {dateFormat: 'uk', sortList: [[0,0]], textExtraction: someOtherTextExtraction} ); } ); </html:script>

And you alter the table to have the following rends:

<table rend="tablesorter tablesorternoinitcode"> ... </table>

Gotcha: if you do provide a <html:script> element, remember to define the html namespace. For more details, see the section of this document labelled Using HTML elements in a TEI file.

The above assumes you want to do the same initialisation code for each table. If you want different initialisation code for some of the tables, add another value to the rend attribute of each table:

<table   rend="tablesorter tablesorternoinitcode tableone"> ... </table>

and refer to this value (rather than tablesorternoinitcode) in the initialisation code:

$table = $(".tableone").tablesorter(

The tablesorternoinitcode must still be present in the rend. It is being used to indicate that you do not want the XSL to generate the default initialisation code.

4.7.2.2.2. Customising tablesorter: for all tables of a site

This is appropriate if you want a micro site to have full control of the customisation of tablesorter.

The file oucsstandard.xsl has the following definition for the template outputTableSorterInitCode. In the XSL for the micro site, you define a template that overrides this.

<xsl:template name="outputTableSorterInitCode"> <script type="text/javascript"> var GTSTextExtraction = function(node) { var anchortext = node.innerHTML.indexOf("--anchor--"); if ( anchortext == -1 ) { return node.innerHTML; } else { return node.innerHTML.substring(anchortext + 15); } } $(document).ready(function() { $table = $(".tablesorter:not(.tablesorternoinitcode)").tablesorter( {dateFormat: 'uk', sortList: [[0,0]], textExtraction: GTSTextExtraction} ); } ); </script> <xsl:call-template name="outputLinebreak"/> </xsl:template>

4.8. Figures and Graphics

Not all the components of a document are necessarily textual. The most straight forward text will often contain diagrams or illustrations, to say nothing of documents in which image and text are inextricably intertwined, or electronic resources in which the two are complementary. This poses accessibility issues for users who cannot see the images. What are they? Are they important to the text, or just page decoration? Is the image a graph or simple picture? Has the author provided extra information about the graphic for those that cannot see it? If you do not provide alternative text for graphics or other accessibiity features in the page coding, the page will be inaccessible to some visitors.

The following tags and attributes are used to add images to web pages:

<figure>
marks the spot at which a graphic is to be inserted in a document. Attributes include:
url
The location and file name of a graphic.
width
The width to which the graphic should be scaled. If omitted, it defaults to the width of the graphic.
height
The height to which the graphic should be scaled. If omitted, it defaults to the height of the graphic.
scale
The extent which the graphic should be scaled (eg 0.5). If omitted, it defaults to 1.
<figDesc>
contains a textual description of the appearance or content of a graphic, essential for accessible graphics.

A picture is inserted into a document using the url attribute of the <figure> element:

<figure url="fezziPic.png">  <head>Mr Fezziwig's Ball</head>  <figDesc>A Cruikshank engraving showing Mr Fezziwig leading a group of    revellers.</figDesc> </figure>

Usually, a graphic will have at the least an identifying title, which should be encoded using the <head> element. Images which are given a head tag have this text automatically converted to a figure caption and are numbered sequentially throughout the document. It is also essential to include a brief description of the image using <figDesc>. If the image is difficult to describe in just a few words, you should provide an alternative page where a full account of the image can be given to the user: this extra information should be provided via a [d] link. These are normal url links to normal web pages. By convention the [d] link should be provided next to the image in question; users needing greater detail about a given image will click on the [d] link for more information.

If the image is for decoration only (very rare on OUCS pages), it is still necessary to include the <figDesc> element in your document, but in this case it should be left blank. By convention the image is then considered just page decoration and unimportant to the reader.

If you want to control the way text flows around an image, use a rend value, as described in the Rends section.

4.9. Getting a TEI file to display a newsfeed

A newsfeed can be displayed by putting a <xptr> element with a rend of rss and a type of transclude inside a <p> element. The url attribute has the URL of the newsfeed. Our XSL can cope with newsfeeds written in RSS 2.0, RSS 1.0 and Atom 1.0.

<p> <xptr rend="rss" type="transclude" url="http://newsrss.bbc.co.uk/rss/newsonline_uk_edition/front_page/rss.xml" /> </p>

This will produce output like the following:

Islamic State 'kills US hostage'An Islamic State video purporting to show the beheading of Steven Sotloff, a US journalist abducted by the group, is released.
CPS withdraws Ashya parents warrantThe parents of Ashya King are to face no further action and should now be reunited with their son, say prosecutors.
New child abuse victims come forwardTwelve new victims have come forward since a report found at least 1,400 children were abused in Rotherham, South Yorkshire's chief constable tells MPs.
Police 'incompetence' over Sir CliffSouth Yorkshire Police are accused of "sheer incompetence" by MPs in the way they dealt with the BBC over a search of Sir Cliff Richard's home.
FM: Independence 'closer than ever'Independence is "closer than it's ever been" claims First Minister Alex Salmond, as an opinion polling suggests gains for the "Yes" campaign.
Million 'have fled Ukraine conflict'The number of people who have fled the fighting in Ukraine has doubled in weeks, and the UN says more than a million have now been displaced.
Troll guilty over MP 'rape' tweetsA man is found guilty of bombarding a Labour MP with abusive messages on Twitter after she supported a feminist campaign.
US 'targets al-Shabab's leader'The US military carries out air strikes in Somalia, reportedly targeting the leader of militant group al-Shabab, though it is unclear if he was hit.
Boris Island airport plan 'not dead'Mayor of London Boris Johnson says plans for an airport in the Thames Estuary, dubbed "Boris Island", are not dead despite a commission looking into the UK's airport needs rejecting the idea.
Russia 'to alter military strategy'Russia is to adjust its military doctrine as a result of the Ukraine crisis and Nato's increasing presence in eastern Europe, a top Russian official says.

By default, 10 items of the feed will get output together with an RSS icon that allows people to subscribe to the newsfeed.

Gotcha: the web page will not change when new items get added to the feed unless you arrange for your page not to be cached by AxKit. Please contact webmaster@oucs.ox.ac.uk to get this done.

4.9.1. rsssummary gives a different style of output

Other components can be added to the rend to control what gets output and how it gets output.

A different style of output is delivered if you add rsssummary to the rend:

<p> <xptr rend="rss rsssummary" type="transclude" url="http://newsrss.bbc.co.uk/rss/newsonline_uk_edition/front_page/rss.xml" /> </p>

This will produce output like the following:

Islamic State 'kills US hostage'An Islamic State video purporting to show the beheading of Steven Sotloff, a US journalist abducted by the group, is released.
CPS withdraws Ashya parents warrantThe parents of Ashya King are to face no further action and should now be reunited with their son, say prosecutors.
New child abuse victims come forwardTwelve new victims have come forward since a report found at least 1,400 children were abused in Rotherham, South Yorkshire's chief constable tells MPs.
Police 'incompetence' over Sir CliffSouth Yorkshire Police are accused of "sheer incompetence" by MPs in the way they dealt with the BBC over a search of Sir Cliff Richard's home.
FM: Independence 'closer than ever'Independence is "closer than it's ever been" claims First Minister Alex Salmond, as an opinion polling suggests gains for the "Yes" campaign.
Million 'have fled Ukraine conflict'The number of people who have fled the fighting in Ukraine has doubled in weeks, and the UN says more than a million have now been displaced.
Troll guilty over MP 'rape' tweetsA man is found guilty of bombarding a Labour MP with abusive messages on Twitter after she supported a feminist campaign.
US 'targets al-Shabab's leader'The US military carries out air strikes in Somalia, reportedly targeting the leader of militant group al-Shabab, though it is unclear if he was hit.
Boris Island airport plan 'not dead'Mayor of London Boris Johnson says plans for an airport in the Thames Estuary, dubbed "Boris Island", are not dead despite a commission looking into the UK's airport needs rejecting the idea.
Russia 'to alter military strategy'Russia is to adjust its military doctrine as a result of the Ukraine crisis and Nato's increasing presence in eastern Europe, a top Russian official says.

4.9.2. rsslimit-all outputs all items and rssnoimage omits the RSS icon

Suppose you want all the items of the feed to be output but you do not want the RSS icon:

<p> <xptr rend="rss rssnoimage rsslimit-all" type="transclude" url="http://newsrss.bbc.co.uk/rss/newsonline_uk_edition/front_page/rss.xml" /> </p>

This will produce output like the following:

Islamic State 'kills US hostage'An Islamic State video purporting to show the beheading of Steven Sotloff, a US journalist abducted by the group, is released.
CPS withdraws Ashya parents warrantThe parents of Ashya King are to face no further action and should now be reunited with their son, say prosecutors.
New child abuse victims come forwardTwelve new victims have come forward since a report found at least 1,400 children were abused in Rotherham, South Yorkshire's chief constable tells MPs.
Police 'incompetence' over Sir CliffSouth Yorkshire Police are accused of "sheer incompetence" by MPs in the way they dealt with the BBC over a search of Sir Cliff Richard's home.
FM: Independence 'closer than ever'Independence is "closer than it's ever been" claims First Minister Alex Salmond, as an opinion polling suggests gains for the "Yes" campaign.
Million 'have fled Ukraine conflict'The number of people who have fled the fighting in Ukraine has doubled in weeks, and the UN says more than a million have now been displaced.
Troll guilty over MP 'rape' tweetsA man is found guilty of bombarding a Labour MP with abusive messages on Twitter after she supported a feminist campaign.
US 'targets al-Shabab's leader'The US military carries out air strikes in Somalia, reportedly targeting the leader of militant group al-Shabab, though it is unclear if he was hit.
Boris Island airport plan 'not dead'Mayor of London Boris Johnson says plans for an airport in the Thames Estuary, dubbed "Boris Island", are not dead despite a commission looking into the UK's airport needs rejecting the idea.
Russia 'to alter military strategy'Russia is to adjust its military doctrine as a result of the Ukraine crisis and Nato's increasing presence in eastern Europe, a top Russian official says.
Justin Bieber charged with assaultCanadian pop star Justin Bieber is charged with assault and dangerous driving after crashing his quad bike into a minivan.
VIDEO: Salmond on 'democratic sensation'First Minister Alex Salmond says the Scottish independence referendum is a "democratic sensation".
VIDEO: Bike accident patient returns homeA teenager seriously injured when he was knocked off his bike a year ago has recovered enough to go home.
VIDEO: Free hot meals for primary pupilsPupils up to the age of seven in England will be entitled to a free hot school lunch from this week, when most schools re-open for the new term.
VIDEO: Beckham sad to see Welbeck leaveFormer Manchester United and England midfielder David Beckham says he is sad to see Danny Welbeck leave the club.
VIDEO: Owners reunited with cliff rescue dogThe owners of Sprig the springer spaniel, who went missing more than a week ago and was found on a cliff ledge, have now been reunited with him.
VIDEO: Eat, sleep, code: Ten-year-old's routineMax started writing code when he was six. He told BBC News why he thought more children being taught how to program in schools was a good idea.
VIDEO: 'Hero' cat saves owner from fireA tabby cat has been hailed a hero after she woke up her owner to alert him to a fire which destroyed his home in Melbourne, Australia.
VIDEO: Solar farm plan for Somerset LevelsPlans have been unveiled for one of the South West's biggest solar farms on the Somerset Levels.
Gamers take a stand against misogynyThousands have signed an open letter demanding change after a female video blogger received death threats.
WW1 warhorse awarded bravery medalA World War One warhorse is awarded an "animal Victoria Cross" to mark the contribution of all animals that served with British forces.
India humble England to win seriesIndia send England to a humiliating nine-wicket defeat to win the fourth one-day international at Edgbaston and the series 3-0.
Cleverley joins Aston Villa on loanAston Villa receive Premier League approval to sign Manchester United midfielder Tom Cleverley on a season-long loan.
England v NorwayArsenal's Danny Welbeck is doubtful for England's friendly against Norway, while Newcastle's Jack Colback will not play.
Gallacher gets Ryder Cup wildcardEurope captain Paul McGinley selects debutant Stephen Gallacher, Ian Poulter and Lee Westwood as his Ryder Cup wildcards.
European Ryder Cup profilesA snapshot of the 12 European players who will take on the USA in the Ryder Cup at Gleneagles from 26-28 September
UK seeks extra power for winterNational Grid is seeking additional electricity supplies for winter after unexpected plant shutdowns have raised fears of potential shortages.
AUDIO: Is conflict good or bad for insurers?Bronek Masojada, chief executive of the insurance company Hiscox, analyses the effect of recent conflicts on the insurance market
Abuse case council faces inspectionThe government is considering conducting an inspection of Rotherham Council in the wake of the child abuse scandal in the town, Home Secretary Theresa May says.
VIDEO: 'A complete dereliction of duty'Rotherham council, police and other agencies failed to protect vulnerable children, the Home Secretary says.
Ebola response 'lethally inadequate'A global military intervention is needed to curb the largest ever Ebola outbreak, according to the medical charity Medecins Sans Frontieres.
VIDEO: Proton therapy: UK patient accessDr Yen-Ching Chang, the lead on Proton Beam Therapy at University College London Hospital, says the UK has comprehensive access to the therapy for patients with the highest needs.
Laptop sales soar in pre-universityThe surge in sales of laptops for students getting ready to start university has become like a "mini-Christmas", say leading retailers.
VIDEO: Do you know what 11x12 is?BBC News asks adults to answer some of the questions that could appear on English schools' new curriculum.
Uber banned across Germany by courtA court says the UberPop service must stop transporting passengers in Germany, but the American company refuses to suspend work.
VIDEO: FBI to investigate celebrity hackingThe FBI are investigating after many famous women have had their nude photographs posted online anonymously after being hacked.
Rosetta set for 'capture' manoeuvresThe Rosetta probe is about to begin the manoeuvres that will take it properly into orbit around Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko.
VIDEO: RSPCA seeks ban on monkeys as petsThe RSPCA is calling for a ban on keeping primates as pets after a rise in the number of calls to its cruelty and advice line concerning animals such as monkeys and marmosets.
FBI probes 'Cloud' celebrity leaksThe FBI looks into allegations that the online accounts of celebrities have been hacked, leading to intimate pictures being posted online.
VIDEO: David Mitchell on The Bone ClocksCloud Atlas author David Mitchell discusses his new novel The Bone Clocks on BBC Breakfast.
Go Figure: The week in numbersThe week in numbers with our Go Figure images.
The Victorian pig singing competitionAuthor Jeremy Clay tells the story of a rather porcine talent show.
UK airstrikes and mass celebrity hack - the papersAmong the stories fascinating Tuesday's press are whether British forces will engage jihadists in Iraq, and the mass hacking of celebrities' iCloud accounts.
Kidnappers broke bones with hammersSix men are jailed for up to 17 years after a man is kidnapped, stripped naked, beaten with hammers and stabbed.
Bronson time-added for prison attackCharles Bronson has a further two year jail term added to his life sentence for holding a prison governor in a headlock and punching him several times.
Plea over missing woman and childrenPolice appeal for help in tracing a woman and three children who have gone missing from the Pollok area of Glasgow.
Glasgow woman 'promoting terrorism'It is understood that a young woman from Glasgow has travelled to Syria and has been promoting terrorism back home via her Twitter account.
Child migrant 'abused in Australia'A 70-year-old former child migrant from a Catholic-run home in Londonderry says he was sexually abused after being shipped to Australia.
PSNI releases files in watchdog rowA high-profile dispute between Northern Ireland's police watchdog and the Police Service of Northern Ireland's Chief Constable is resolved after the PSNI hands over sensitive intelligence material about informers.
Officials begin arriving for NatoOfficials from around the world start arriving in Wales later for the Nato summit which starts in Newport on Thursday.
Missing boy's mother thanks crewsThe mother of a 12-year-old boy swept out to sea while playing on Anglesey sends an emotional thank you to crews who are searching for her son.
Nigeria militants 'seize' major townNigeria's militant Islamist group Boko Haram seizes the key north-eastern town of Bama after fighting with government forces, residents tell the BBC.
Mali landmine kills four UN soldiersFour UN peacekeepers are killed and 15 injured by a landmine in northern Mali, amid what the UN calls a period of "increased attacks".
Afghan militants 'may join IS'Fighters from a militant Islamic group in Afghanistan, allied to the Taliban, tell the BBC they are considering joining forces with Islamic State.
Pakistan MPs hold emergency sessionPakistani Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif seeks to gain support in an emergency joint session of parliament as protesters on the streets of Islamabad call for his resignation.
EU's Mogherini calls for Nato muscleNato must back words with actions to reassure countries bordering on Russia, the EU's new foreign affairs chief says.
Gayet wins new French privacy caseActress Julie Gayet, linked to President Hollande, wins a privacy case against a photographer who snapped her in her car, which French law deems private space.
'Cartel links' mayors to be chargedPolice in Mexico are holding two serving mayors and one ex-mayor over allegations they have links to the Knights Templar drug cartel.
Ecuador volcano increases activityA massive ash cloud is rising from the Tungurahua volcano in Ecuador as it shows increased activity with a series of explosions on Monday.
IS accused of Iraq ethnic cleansingAmnesty International says it has proof Islamic State militants have launched a campaign of ethnic cleansing against minorities in northern Iraq.
Terror suspects held in Saudi ArabiaSaudi Arabia's interior ministry says it has arrested 88 people suspected of plotting attacks inside and outside the country.
Mass escape from juvenile US prisonMore than 30 teenagers held at a juvenile detention centre in Tennessee escape by crawling through a fence and 17 are still being sought.
Brain 'can learn to eat healthily'The brain can be trained to prefer healthy food over unhealthy high-calorie foods, suggests a study from the US.
Day in pictures: 2 September 2014News images from around the world: 2 September
British Wildlife Photography AwardsWinners of the 2014 British Wildlife Photography Awards
In pictures: India's coal minersCoal miners a work in eastern India
New Documentary Photography from Scotland & WalesPhotographers' images of Scotland and Wales
Day in pictures: 1 September 2014News images from around the world: 1 September
Day in pictures: 29 August 2014News images from around the world: 29 August
Richard Attenborough career in picturesBritish actor and director's illustrious career
In pictures: India's 'untouchable' scavengersCalls to end India's low-caste manual scavenging
VIDEO: House of CommonsThe government is urged to expedite its child abuse inquiry following the Rotherham scandal.
VIDEO: Volcano continues fiery lava eruptionA dramatic lava eruption that began early on Sunday near Iceland's Bardarbunga volcano has continued into Monday.
VIDEO: The most future-proof profession?BBC News talks to Ian Lowe, a blacksmith who teaches other people an ancient art he believes to be future-proof.
VIDEO: ‘I smuggled jihadists into Syria’The BBC's Ian Pannell reports from Turkey's border with Syria where he met a man who helped smuggle foreign fighters cross the border.
VIDEO: Locals divided on Heathrow expansionResidents from the areas close to Heathrow airport have mixed views on the possibility of further expansion.
VIDEO: 'Bacon butty' for British Ebola nurseThe parents of the first British person to contract Ebola during the outbreak in West Africa say he is recovering well.
VIDEO: UK facing a 'tsunami of skin cancer'Hospitals in England have seen a rise in admissions for skin cancer of nearly a third in five years, official figures show.
VIDEO: Iraq grannies 'take on IS in Amerli’Residents and fighters in Amerli are celebrating the end of a two-month siege and the withdrawal of IS militants from around the town.
VIDEO: Ashya arrest warrant withdrawnThe parents of Ashya King will face no further action and should be reunited with their son, say prosecutors.
How to protect yourself in the cloudAfter celebrity leaks, what can you do to safeguard your photos?
Have some football clubs overpaid for players?Have some football clubs overpaid for their new players?
Does limiting the power of appliances save energy?Would banning high-power appliances actually save energy?
Is the UK unusually fond of lamb and potatoes?Is the UK unusually fond of lamb and potatoes?
Does the rest of UK care if Scotland goes?Does the rest of the UK care if the Scots become independent?
How much has the ice bucket challenge achieved?How much has the Ice Bucket Challenge achieved?
Windows XP: Your upgrade experiencesReaders share their experiences of replacing their operating system
The growing threat to our recoveryThe growing threat to our recovery
A cloud of uncertaintyHow were leaked celebrity photos obtained?
What about Scotland's pensioners?What does the future hold for Scotland's pensioners?

4.9.3. rsslimit-2 outputs two items and rssbrief just outputs the titles

Suppose you just want the titles and you only want two items output:

<p> <xptr rend="rss rssbrief rsslimit-2" type="transclude" url="http://newsrss.bbc.co.uk/rss/newsonline_uk_edition/front_page/rss.xml" /> </p>

This will produce output like the following:

Islamic State 'kills US hostage'
CPS withdraws Ashya parents warrant

4.9.4. jsdate-XXXX outputs the date the item was published

If you also want the date when the item was published, you can use:

<p> <xptr rend="jsdate-[d_F_Y] rss rssbrief rsslimit-2" type="transclude" url="http://newsrss.bbc.co.uk/rss/newsonline_uk_edition/front_page/rss.xml" /> </p>

Here the rend attribute has a component that starts with jsdate-. This is followed by some notation (e.g., [d_F_Y]) that indicates how you want the date formatted. It uses the same notation that is used by PHP for its date function with the addition of one character: a _ means generate a space.

The date is output in a <span> that has a class of rssdate and the default CSS hides any such span. So you will also need to define some CSS to ensure the date is displayed:

<html:style type="text/css"> .rssdate { display: inline; padding-left: 10px; } </html:style>

This will produce output like the following:

Islamic State 'kills US hostage'
CPS withdraws Ashya parents warrant

Here's another example. The TEI elements:

<p> <xptr rend="jsdate-l,_F_jS,_Y rss rssnoimage rsslimit-2" type="transclude" url="http://newsrss.bbc.co.uk/rss/newsonline_uk_edition/front_page/rss.xml" /> </p>

will produce output like the following:

Islamic State 'kills US hostage'An Islamic State video purporting to show the beheading of Steven Sotloff, a US journalist abducted by the group, is released.
CPS withdraws Ashya parents warrantThe parents of Ashya King are to face no further action and should now be reunited with their son, say prosecutors.

4.10. Using HTML elements in a TEI file

Although TEI is a rich language so that most of what can be coded in HTML can also be coded in TEI, there are occasions when you may want to use some HTML in a TEI document.

If you wish to do this, you need to introduce a namespace that you can use to say that a particular element belongs to HTML rather than to TEI. Usually, the name html is used for this namespace.

Somewhere you have to indicate which name you are using. Usually, this is done by replacing the first line of the file:
<TEI.2>
by:
<TEI.2 xmlns:html="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml">
You can then use an HTML element (e.g., the <style> element) by prefixing its name with the namespace html:
<html:style type="text/css"> .overdue: { background-color: red; } </html:style>
Here is another example:
<html:script type="text/javascript"> var GCS_due_date = ""; ... </html:script>

If you want some HTML elements to appear in the <head> element of the HTML that gets generated, you should put these elements between the <fileDesc> and the <revisionDesc> elements (that appear in the <teiHeader>).

Suppose you do wish to add an HTML <style> element. The rules of HTML say the <style> element must finish up in the <head> element of the resulting HTML. So to achieve this, use something like:
... </fileDesc> <html:style type="text/css"> .overdue: { background-color: red; } </html:style> <revisionDesc> ...

4.11. Forms to collect data and send a message

It is possible to provide a form (in a TEI file) that collects some data from a user and sends that data to someone in an e-mail message. There are details about this in a document on FormMail.

4.12. Accessibility of documentation

Accessibility of our documentation is paramount to ensure documents are accessible to all readers and for OUCS to stay on the correct side of the law. It is necessary for all OUCS authors to familiarise themselves with the ways and means to make their documents as accessible as possible.

Authors need to make sure that they follow the following guidelines:

  • do not make links with the text here or click here, make links that mean something out of context of the sentence they are in. Similarly do not use the same titles for lots of different links on a page when they actually point to different places.
  • When using graphics always provide the <figDesc> element. If necessary go the extra step and make a [d] link for longer explanations of figures
  • When using tables, make sure they are comprehensible when they are linearised. Always include the summary attribute regardless of whether the table is for layout or data. The latter requires you to give some details of the table's content.
  • When you have finished making a web page, you can check its accessibility using online services such as those found in the Complete List of Web Accessibility Evaluation Tools (compiled by the Web Accessibility Initiative (WAI)).

Please use these checkers and make any changes required.

5. Specialised Features

5.1. Generated Divisions

Most modern document production systems have the ability to automatically generate whole sections such as a table of contents or an index. The TEI OUCS scheme provides an element to mark the location at which such a generated section should be placed.
<divGen>
indicates the location at which a textual division generated automatically by a text-processing application is to appear. Attributes include:
type
specifies what type of generated text division (e.g. index, table of contents, etc.) is to appear. Sample values include: index (an index is to be generated and inserted at this point), toc (a table of contents), figlist (a list of figures) and tablist (a list of tables).
The <divGen> element can be placed anywhere that a division element would be legal, as in the following example:
<front>  <titlePage> ... </titlePage>  <divGen type="toc"/>  <div type="Preface">   <head>Preface</head> ... </div> </front> <body> ... </body> <back>  <div>   <head>Appendix</head> ... </div>  <divGen type="indexn="Index"/> </back>

When an index or table of contents is to be encoded (rather than one being generated) for some reason, the <list> element discussed in section 4.6. Lists should be used.

Rends

Rend values can be used to define how an element is rendered on the webpage, for example aligning items to the left or right of a page, allowing text to flow around images or stating that a bit of text should be in italics or red. Some of the more common rends available for use with the OUCS webpages are listed below.

If there is a particular style you need on your pages that is not currently available, please contact webmaster@oucs.ox.ac.uk for help.

Rends for use with images: <figure rend="xxx">
border
places a border around the image.
centre
places then image in the middle of the line. Text breaks and runs above and below.
inline
image appears with the text on either side. Spacing for the line is decided by image height (which means there is space above the text if the image is higher than the text row)
pic-left
floats image to the left in your running text. Text does not break for image but continues to the right of (and under) it.
pic-right
floats image to the right in your running text. Text does not break for image but continues to the left of (and under) it.
spaceimage
adds space around an image. Text runs above and below image+ space.
wrap
image aligns to the left. Text breaks and continues to the right of image
Rends for use with tables: <table rend="xxx">, <row rend="xxx">, <cell rend="xxx">
label
used for cell or row to show they contain labels rather than data.
Note: <row rend=”label”> makes the background light blue whereas <row role=”label"> makes the background grey and the text white and centred
centretext
to make text in a row centred in each cell
green
used for cell to add background colour
red
used for cell to add background colour
yellow
used for cell to add background colour
blue
used for cell to add background colour
Rends for use with lists: <list rend="xxx">
lower-alpha
for ordered list. List items numbered a, b, c etc
lower-roman
for ordered list. List items numbered i, ii, iii etc
upper-alpha
for ordered list. List items numbered A, B, C etc
upper-roman
for ordered list. List items numbered I, II, III, IV etc
no-bullets
List items appear without bullets before them
Rends for use with a block of text: <p rend="xxx"> or <div rend="xxx>
centre
centres text
centretext
centres text
important
text is bold, red
wrap
Used to wrap text around images
green
green text
red
red text
Rends to use with highlighted text: <hi rend="xxx">
bold
makes text bold
italic
makes text italic
small
makes text smaller in size
sup
makes text appear as superscript
sub
makes text appear as subscript
important
makes text red and bold
code
makes text appear in bold courier font
red
makes text red
green
makes text green
Other rends
nosplit
Unusually this is only applied to the TEI.2 element. Used to prevent your document from spliting on the major divs when it is displayed on the web. Very useful if you have lots of small divs that would look odd on their own pages.
new
Used on links when you want the link to open a new window.

Special Characters

Some characters must be treated specially, using character entities:

EntityCharacterDescription
&amp; & ampersand
&quot; " double quotation mark
&lt; < less-than sign
&gt; > greater-than sign
&apos; ' apostrophe

Any other characters which are not on your keyboard can either be entered as numeric entities (see, eg, http://www.tedmontgomery.com/tutorial/HTMLchrc.html) or using UTF-8. How you enter UTF-8 on your keyboard depends on your application or operating system. oXygen, for example, has a facility [Edit/Enter from Character Map] to let you enter characters which are not on the keyboard.