Annual Report

July 4th 1983 - July 1st 1984

Oxford University Computing Service


Introduction
Software and Service Changes
User Liaison
Computing in the Arts
Performance and Reliability

Table 1. Machine Usage
Table 2. Reliability and MTBF
Table 3. Remote Site Usage


Introduction

The past year has seen major changes in the organization of the central computing services within the University. In recognition of the importance of computing to many undergraduate courses, the Computing Teaching Centre has now been established as a separate Department. The conversion of 59 George Street to form its new premises was carried out during the year, and the move of staff and equipment is due to take place over the summer. The former Computing Services Committee has been replaced by two new committees: the Central Computing Committee, which carries responsibility for the activities of the Computer Centre at 13 Banbury Road, and the Committee of Management of the Computing Teaching Centre. The work of both new committees is overseen by another new body, the Computing Council, which has wide terms of reference; these include responsibility for considering computing service support of research and of teaching, and the balance between central and departmental provision in both areas.

One implication of these changes is that the Computing Teaching Centre now produces its own reports, so that its activities are no longer described in these pages. Nevertheless the association between the two parts of the central service will remain close, and we at 13 Banbury Road look forward to continued collaboration with our former colleagues in their new home.

The University’s mid-term review of its computing facilities was submitted to the Computer Board in June 1983. As a result, the Board awarded funds for a number of enhancements to the ICL 2988, in the form of additions to the magnetic tape facilities and disc filestore, together with a CAFS processor. CAFS (the name stands for Content Addressable Filestore System) is a new and innovative ICL product which enables large databases to be searched extremely rapidly by hardware; the initial, highly encouraging experiences with it are described later in the report. Apart from the 2988 enhancements, the grant provided an additional disc drive for the Lasercomp. These purchases did not exhaust the mid-term review funds available, and a supplementary application was made to the Computer Board in June 1984 requesting enhancements to the VAX system, a laser printer preview facility on the Lasercomp and a faster processor for the Kurzweil Data Entry Machine.

Further new facilities have been provided with the aid of University funds. The aging Calcomp 1670 microfiche/microfilm plotter has been replaced by an Agfa-Gevaert 2300 microfiche unit. Whilst it was regrettable that the microfilm plotting facility had to be withdrawn because it would have been uneconomical to replace, the facility had in fact been only lightly used. Microfilm plotting can still be carried out by sending work to ULCC and UMRCC.

Support for microprocessor-based systems has been expanded. In the area of complete microcomputer systems, the Computing Service policy of giving prime support to the BBC Model B and the IBM PC has been endorsed by the Central Computing Committee and the Computing Council. A demonstration room is provided in which hardware configurations and software packages for these two machines can be tried out by intending users. This service is clearly answering a genuine need. More specialised applications of microprocessors, e.g. for experimental control or data logging, are dealt with by a separate consultancy equipped with hardware and software development tools.

Data communications form an increasing preoccupation of all computing services and many users. At Oxford, the most conspicuous advance during the year has been the installation of a GEC 4160 packet switching exchange to allow X25 communications between University facilities and the joint academic wide-area network (JANET). Terminal access, file transfer and electronic mail services to and from numerous sites - both nationally and, in some cases, internationally - have rapidly become part of everyday life for those who wish to use them. The more mundane tasks of submitting production jobs to ULCC and UMRCC have at times proved more problematic. The difficulties have been due both to major changes in the systems at the National Centres themselves and to the age and unreliability of the CTL MOD1 system in Oxford. A stable solution has been reached for UMRCC by moving the remote job entry service to a Scicon HASPBOX installed in VAX3; although the underlying protocol has been changed from ICL 7020 to HASP, the move was accomplished in a manner transparent to users. Access to ULCC remains based on the MOD1 for the present, pending the introduction of a VAX-based service using the JTMP protocol. In view of the concern over serviceability of the MOD1, this situation is being kept under constant review.

Finally, a brief mention should be made of two projects which, although they do not directly involve the Computing Service, may in due course have a significant influence on the work of many computer users. The University has taken the decision in principle to replace its telephone network with a modern digital PABX system. Since digital PABXs will switch data as well as voice communications, the potential will exist to connect a proportion of users’ terminals to central (or departmental) computers over the telephone system. The Service has offered technical advice during the preparation of the initial report by the consultants, Improcom Ltd., and expects to remain active in defining the standards for data communication required of the new PABX equipment. The second project is an investigation into library automation within the University, carried out under the control of the Technical Subcommittee of the Libraries Board. In this case the Deputy Director of the Computing Service has been seconded to the project for half his time over a period of two years.

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Software and Service Changes

General

Consolidation of the Service provided by the Cambridge Ring has continued. The latest release of the file transfer software (FTP) for the VAX has proved considerably more robust in use than earlier releases. Software work has been completed to allow FTP to run in conjunction with either CR82 transport service on the Cambridge Ring or X25 ‘Yellow Book’ transport service over X25 links. A Ring printer is in use at the Psychology/Zoology building, and another new Ring printer link will drive a remote printer at the Computing Teaching Centre in George Street. An extension of the Ring to serve the Institute of Economics and Statistics in the St. Cross Building is planned.

A Scicon HASPBOX communications board, installed in VAX3, came into service in June 1984 to provide a HASP-based remote job entry facility to UMRCC. This is connected to the new Amdahl 470V/8 front end computer in Manchester. Although the routing of jobs through the ICL 1904S front end remains possible, users are currently being transferred to the Amdahl with a view to closing down the MOD1-1904S route in early autumn. The use of HASP to ULCC has also been tested.

A Qume daisywheel printer equipped with sheet feeder has been installed in the user area, giving a self-service facility for letter-quality output from the central computers.

A microcomputer demonstration room currently housing one BBC Model B, two IBM PCs and a Sinclair QL has been established. A range of peripherals and numerous software packages for these machines are also available. Users may make an appointment to discuss their needs with a member of Computing Service staff, or may reserve one of the machines for evaluation of hardware and/or software. File transfer between the BBC and IBM microcomputers and the central mainframes is also provided from the demonstration room (though not as yet from the user area).

The Science Area data centre in the Atmospheric Physics building is scheduled for closure during 1984, when the Computing Teaching Centre moves to George Street and the space previously occupied by the Teaching Centre and the data centre is reallocated. Appeals for alternative accommodation for the data centre were rewarded when the Theoretical Chemistry Department offered the possibility of a room in their building at 1 South Parks Road. Negotiations over the necessary building alterations and communications arrangements are in hand at the moment, and the long-term prospects for the data centre now appear very promising. It is hoped that the change will have been made in time for the start of the next academic year.

ICL 2988

During the winter months the ICL 2988 was enhanced by the addition of four further FDS640 fixed disc drives. The configuration now contains eight EDS200 exchangeable drives and eight FDS640 fixed drives. Two of the new discs were intended to increase the amount of filestore in general use, while the second two were reserved for use with the content-addressable filestore system, CAFS. To improve backup capability for the enlarged filestore, a fifth GTS470 magnetic tape drive was also added.

After some minor problems associated with installation, the CAFS processor has been reliable in use. Tests with several databases have been carried out. As was hoped from the specification, the use of CA F S shows spectacular gains in both CPU time and elapsed time (up to a factor of 100) when compared to conventional searches of large databases. Users are now being encouraged to bring forward new database projects which could benefit from the use of CAFS.

A new type of communications board known as the NIC (network interface connector) has been under test since May. The NIC allows X25/X29 terminal access from a PAD to the 2988 at speeds, in principle, of up to 9600 bps. In practice 1200 bps would be expected to impose less load on the mainframe. Introduction of NIC access to general user service has been delayed by the existence of some faults in the ICL software, notably a failure to clear X29 calls satisfactorily in certain circumstances. If these faults can be rectified, the NIC route offers the hope of a reliable MAC service at line speeds comfortably higher than the present 300 bps, and the eventual replacement of our present outdated ICL front end equipment.

Release 801 of VME was installed in April. Apart from support of CAFS and the NICs, few changes to user facilities were introduced by this release. A major exercise in changing the command interface seen by users was completed in June; this involved extensive tidying and simplification of the command specifications, bringing them more into line with ICL’s standard VME user interface.

In September 1983 two new queues were introduced, and the time limits of the existing queues were altered to allow longer batch jobs to be submitted. The aim of these changes was to utilise overnight capacity more effectively. The maximum limit was increased from 40 minutes to 3 hours and, with permission, from 2 hours to 6 hours. The Service is now planning to increase the time limits for interactive jobs and for the FAST and DAY queues.

New software mounted included the ICL information retrieval package QUERYMASTER, which uses CAFS, and the NAG Finite Element Library. USERLIB was created to hold user-supplied software, as had been done earlier on the VAX. New versions of MDSX, FACSIMILE, BMDP, SIR, CLUSTAN, CLUSCOM, IDMS, PDS, the Fortran77 compiler and the NAG Fortran Library were implemented. The NAG Graphical Supplement was converted to use GHOST80.

VAX

The main change in the hardware configuration has been an overall increase in memory size. All three machines now have 4 MB of main memory; two of them, VAX2 and VAX3, have been converted to new (64K chip) memory. The enhancement of VAX3 reflects its use for more demanding teaching applications than in the past, especially a course using the Yale University T-Lisp package taught by the Programming Research Group. Some retuning has been necessary to optimise the use of the larger memories on VAX1 and VAX2 under interactive load. It is hoped to provide further memory increases and also enhancements to the processing power and user filestore within the coming year, as a result of the most recent submission to the Computer Board.

In September 1983 the time limits on the LONG and FREE queues were increased and a new WEEKEND queue was introduced, with the aim of increasing the usage of the machines overnight and at weekends. In June 1984 the charges for interactive work performed outside the hours 0900 - 1800, Monday to Friday, were reduced to encourage still further usage at less heavily loaded times. The time limits for the SMALL, MEDIUM and TAPES queues were also increased at this stage.

A new workspace system has been designed and brought into use.

New software mounted has included the algebraic manipulation package MACSYMA, the statistical analysis package SAS, and the first commercial release of the full-language Algol68 compiler. New versions were implemented of P-STAT, SIR, GENSTAT, TSP, MINITAB, the NAG Fortran Library and the NAG Online Supplement. The NAG Graphical Supplement was converted to use GHOST80.

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User Liaison

Advisory Service

The policy introduced last year of improving continuity in the Advisory Service, by having the same ‘permanent’ advisor on duty for a week at a time during the hours of 1000 - 1300, has been extended. Three members of staff now share this responsibility. A service has been introduced for sending problems to Advisory using electronic mail, on both the 2988 and the VAX systems. The log of problems brought to Advisory continues to be a valuable channel of communication to the programming staff who create and maintain software and documentation.

Documentation

The currently available User Guides are listed below.

A1.1 Introduction to the Computing Service

A2.1 Rules of the Computing Service

A3.1 Service Facilities

A4.1 Glossary of Terms (2988)

A4.2 Glossary of VAX Terms

A5.1 2988 Budgeting, Accounting and Scheduling

A5.2 VAX Budgeting, Accounting and Scheduling

B1.1 Oxford Command Specifications

B2.1 Getting Started on the 2988

B3.1 Editing Files

C2.1 Running Algol68 Jobs

C3.1 Running Fortran Jobs

E1.1 PDS - Personal Data System

E2.1 BMDP Biomedical Computer Programs - P Series

E2.2 SPSS - Statistical Package for Social Sciences

E2.5 MDS(X) - Multidimensional Scaling Programs

E2.8 CLUSTAN - Cluster Analysis Package

E3.1 GHOST Graphical Output Library

E3.2 SYMAP

E3.3 SYMVU

E3.4 GIMMS - General Purpose Geographical Processing System

E4.1 Getting Started on the Lasercomp

E4.2 Famulus

F1.1 Using Remote Computers from the 2988

G1.1 Creating and Editing Files using ECCE

G1.2 Getting Started with ECCE

G2.1 VAX/2988 File and Job Transfer

G2.2 Listing Files to Film

G2.3 The Oxford File Archive

G2.4 Magnetic Tape on the 2988 and VAX

G3.1 Spitbol

G4.1 OCP - Oxford Concordance Program

G4.2 QUILL

G4.3 P-STAT - Princeton Statistical Program

G4.4 GENSTAT - A General Statistical Program

G4.5 TSP - Time Series Processor

G4.6 GLIM - Generalised Linear Interactive Modeling

G5.1 NAG Library

G5.2 GHOST80 Graphics at OUCS

M0.0 Changes to the 2988 User Interface

M0.1 Changes to the 2988 User Interface (Phase Two)

M1.1 OUCS Algol68 Library

M2.3 GPCP

M2.4 FACSIMILE

M3.1 Calcomp-on-Ghost on the 2988

M3.2 GHOST80 Ä Extensions for Dacoll M249 Extended Features Package

M4.2 Standards for Magnetic Tape Transfer

M4.4 Lasercomp Work Submitted by Remote Sites

M5.1 Using the PAD

M5.2 VT100 Terminals

M5.3 The Qume Printer

M5.4 Screen-Editing Facilities on VT52 Terminals

M5.5 The Dacoll M249 Graphics Terminals

M5.6 The Calcomp 1012 Plotters

M6.3 File Transfer between the Apple IIE and the VAXs

M6.4 Cifer File Transfer System for CP/M Discs to and from VAX Systems

M6.5 File Transfer Using the Cambridge Ring (reading CP/M discs on 380Z)

V1.1 Getting Started on the VAX

V2.1 Using the VAX

V3.2 MINITAB - An Interactive Statistics Package

Courses

Since September the Service has offered three introductory courses, each of a half-day’s duration. Users normally attend the course on the ECCE editor, followed by the course for the machine which they intend to use. The change from a system based on two alternative whole-day courses to one based on three half-day courses has proved very effective; the ECCE course allows plenty of time for the novice user to become familiar both with the simple use of a terminal and with the editor. The Getting Started with ECCE course was given 27 times (254 participants), Getting Started on the 2988 16 times (127 participants) and Getting Started on the VAX 20 times (212 participants).

A series of statistical courses was given in Michaelmas Term. This consisted of a general introduction to the range of packages available, a two-day SPSS course, a one-day MINITAB course, a four-day P-STAT course and an introductory SIR course. In Hilary Term a series of database seminars was presented, covering such topics as database design, designing a network database, and use of relational, hierarchic and text-handling databases. During Hilary Term there was also a two day course on the use of SAS (Statistical Analysis System). All these courses and seminars were well attended.

A tutorial on the Graphical Kernel System (GKS) was organised jointly by the Computing Service and the Computing Teaching Centre.

Two open presentations were made by the Service during the year. The first, in November, was for new users and gave an introduction to the facilities provided. About 30 people attended. The second, in March, described the policy for support of microcomputers and microprocessor systems and attracted an audience of over 150.

Remote Services

At ULCC the CDC 6600 and 7600 were withdrawn at the end of January, leaving only the Cray 1S and Amdahl 470V/8 computers. Both machines were in heavy use as the end of the ULCC allocation year app reached, and the Cray in particular is in such demand that there must be serious concern over the installed capacity at ULCC. Terminal access to ULCC was improved substantially by the installation of an Amdahl 4705E communications processor in February.

At UMRCC the Amdahl front end has been enhanced to a 470V/8. The Amdahl and the CDC Cyber 205 came into service on 5th March. Oxford users have in the main continued to use the CDC 7600 service, but larger users are beginning to transfer work to the Cyber 205. It became clear that the time-scale for implementation of JTMP job transfer protocol at UMRCC meant that the use of HASP as an interim protocol could no longer be avoided. Current transfer of usernames from the ICL 1904S to the Amdahl front end has highlighted the difficulties of supporting at Oxford new and very different user interfaces at the two national centres.

The direct submission of jobs to Cambridge, by way of ULCC, became impossible in March as an unplanned consequence of network software changes by ULCC. The route has not yet been restored, and the change of operating system at Cambridge from MVT to MVS seems likely to cause further complications. Most users have coped with the situation by using file transfer and terminal access over JANET.

Allocations

It seems generally agreed that the scheme introduced in the previous year has worked satisfactorily. Under the new committee structure, the Chairman of the Allocations Subcommittee is ex officio a member of the Central Computing Committee and reports to it.

10 more groups for allocation of resources were set up by the Allocations Committee at its November meeting. The allocation of time at ULCC and UMRCC was delegated to Computing Service staff: Cray time will in any case be administered on a different basis next year, with the adoption by ULCC of a share scheme and Larmouth scheduler.

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Computing in the Arts

Courses

The Spitbol course has been given four times, once each in Michaelmas and Hilary Terms and twice in Trinity Term. The courses on Text Analysis and on Computer Methods in Historical Research were given once each, and a course entitled Computing for Modern Linguists (for first-year graduate students in Modern Languages) was also given. A one-day seminar was presented to staff of the Ashmolean Museum on 13th January.

The Computer Board agreed to support for a further three years from 1st October the post of external advisor. Dr Ruth Glynn was appointed to this post; she has lectured during the year at the Universities of Leicester, Loughborough, Warwick, Edinburgh and Glasgow.

Mrs Hockey gave invited papers at conferences on Computers and Literature at the University of Victoria, British Columbia (19th - 20th January 1984) and Computers and the Humanities at Westfield College, London (28th April 1984). She also lectured at the University of Alberta, Edmonton for two weeks in January - February 1984.

Oxford Concordance Program

No further development of OCP has taken place, but some minor corrections have been issued and the Users’ Manual reprinted. The program has been issued to an additional 40 sites: 11 in the United Kingdom, 12 in the United States, 5 in Canada, 3 in West Germany, 2 in Australia and one each in Belgium, Finland, Italy, Japan, New Zealand, South Africa and Sweden.

KDEM

A full report on the KDEM service from its inception up to June 1984 was prepared as part of the University’s submission to the Computer Board during the summer. Included in the report was an assessment of the new system now offered by Kurzweil (Kurzweil 4000) and of a possible processor upgrade to the present machine, known as the MAX processor. The processor upgrade was considered to be much more desirable than a change to the Kurzweil 4000, and the former was recommended to the Board as a way of improving throughput.

The permanent staff establishment of the unit is now three, but the absence of the supervisor on maternity leave has necessitated the employment of a number of temporary staff to maintain the service at a satisfactory level. The replacement of the Youth Opportunities Program by the Youth Training Scheme has reduced the number of trainees available for routine editing and typing work.

The KDEM itself has been reliable and an extensive programme of work has been completed, over half of it for users from outside Oxford. Requests for work to be scanned continue to exceed the reading capacity of the machine in its current configuration.

Lasercomp

The workload on the Lasercomp has grown steadily for a further year. In recent months roughly 60% of the work has been for external users. Although some large jobs are still sent on magnetic tape, the typical external job is now sent as a file over JANET to VAX3, and then submitted to the Lasercomp from a terminal in the user’s own University, logged in to the VAX across the network. External users’ meetings have been held twice, in September and March. Three Lasercomp workshops have also been held - one for external users, one for internal users, and one joint - and two issues of Lasercomp News have been produced.

Software development has concentrated on new versions of LASERCHECK and LASERSET, although at the time of writing these are not yet ready for general release. Considerable effort has been devoted to production of the necessary revisions of the documentation. A complication in the software development was the unexpected appearance from Monotype of a new software system, System 3, for the Lasercomp itself, which among other new utilities includes on-line software sizing. System 3 has been installed for production work, and the characters for all software-sized founts have been loaded. The specifications of the new LASERCHECK and LASERSET have been amended to make use of the System 3 facilities.

Work on non-Latin alphabets has continued. Typesetting of Hebrew, first announced in last year’s report, is now routine and setting of mixed English and Hebrew text can be performed. Syriac and Devanagari still present difficulties as some characters or part-characters are missing from the founts. In particular, it has been established that the Devanagari fount is adequate for setting Hindi but not for setting Sanskrit.

Text Archive

During the year the Text Archive acquired 330 new titles, over half of these being Greek texts purchased from the University of California for use in the revision of Liddell and Scott’s Dictionary. Among the remainder were several Elizabethan plays and a large amount of mediaeval Latin. Copies of more than 160 titles were issued from the Archive during the same period.

A new edition of the Shortlist has been published recently, incorporating for the first time details of machine-readable texts held at Cambridge as well. It is hoped that this type of co-operation with other centres might be extended in the future, perhaps under the aegis of the ALLC.

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Performance and Reliability

2988 Service

The reliability of the 2988 was extremely good during the latter part of 1983. However, 1984 saw a marked decline in serviceability, with faults occurring in many different items of equipment. Of particular concern were faults in the FDS640 disc systems, which appeared to be exacerbated by the installation of new equipment. These reached a climax at the end of March, when a series of disc corruptions caused a large amount of down-time and a serious regression of the user filestore. ICL conducted a major investigation into the state of the FDS system and uncovered several underlying problems.

The next major cause of disruption was processor faults. At the end of June ICL carried out an exercise over several weekends to check and replace boards in the two processors. Reliability now seems to have improved, although the Service still wishes to see further improvement before the level can be regarded as wholly satisfactory.

VAX Service

Performance of all three VAX machines has been good. The new memory on VAX2 and VAX3, installed in May, has operated without fault. The apparent poor performance recorded during the last week of the year was due to a weekend power failure and did not involve the VAX hardware in any way.

Communications Equipment

The CTL MOD1 system which handles the links to the services at ULCC and UMRCC has had several periods of down-time. The worst, in March, lasted for five days. The Service is continuing its efforts to transfer to alternative communications links, but there have been further delays in the schedules for implementation of networking software at the remote centres. The UMRCC link will be moved from the MOD1 in the autumn, and contingency plans have been made for the ULCC link should the MOD1 serviceability fall to an unacceptable level.

The CPSE and PADs have operated without problem.

Other Equipment

The Calcomp drum plotters continue to perform well. There were some problems with the Lasercomp tape deck early in the year, but the performance of the Lasercomp itself has been satisfactory.

The Calcomp 1670 microfiche/microfilm unit suffered from an increasing number of breakdowns, particularly with the 3 5 mm microfilm camera. This unit has now been replaced by Agfa-Gevaert equipment, which has given no hardware problems although a certain amount of software development work is needed before this service is fully mature.

The Versamat fiche/film processor has been the source of a number of interruptions to the microfiche service. A replacement film processor must be considered in the near future.

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Table 1. Machine Usage

Week Ending

2988

VAX

 

Interactive

Batch

Interactive

Batch

 

No. of Jobs

CPU Hours

No. of Jobs

CPU Hours

No. of Jobs

CPU Hours

No. of Jobs

CPU Hours

22/4/84

1361

6.38

1312

42.22

2665

28.70

1050

234.73

29/4/84

2316

11.43

1837

107.84

2701

29.83

1422

204.68

6/5/84

3431

15.63

2788

135.17

4732

51.45

1982

216.41

13/5/84

2478

11.62

1981

118.72

4055

49.88

1743

218.18

20/5/84

4050

20.53

3323

151.42

3208

39.21

1605

178.43

27/5/84

4101

16.44

3432

167.91

5203

62.08

2746

218.02

3/6/84

2778

11.87

2379

132.12

4444

54.20

1902

197.26

10/6/84

3261

14.17

2850

113.57

4153

53.92

1382

116.75

17/6/84

3197

12.78

2518

99.52

5728

67.41

1747

207.22

24/6/84

3501

15.65

3457

158.12

4748

65.12

1666

200.97

1/7/84

3006

13.63

2278

99.01

4180

62.29

1358

181.65

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Table 2. Reliability and Mean Time Between Failures

Reliability is the percentage of scheduled productive time (i.e. switched-on time not allocated to maintenance, development or backup) during which the machine is fault-free. Weighting factors are applied to equipment failures that allow the service to continue with impaired performance. Mean Time Between Failures (MTBF) is the mean time between incidents requiring a system reload to take place.

Week Ending

2988

VAX1

VAX2

VAX3

 

Reliability (%)

MTBF (hrs)

Reliability (%)

MTBF (hrs)

Reliability (%)

MTBF (hrs)

Reliability (%)

MTBF (hrs)

22/4/84

72.51

26.70

99.51

84.00

100.00

¥

99.87

53.22

29/4/84

96.25

100.30

97.17

84.00

96.67

84.00

100.00

¥

6/5/84

94.87

31.10

99.88

166.08

99.64

168.00

99.71

58.24

13/5/84

96.34

33.27

100.00

¥

100.00

¥

100.00

¥

20/5/84

98.53

61.44

98.47

33.60

96.34

84.00

100.00

¥

27/5/84

99.62

124.10

100.00

¥

100.00

¥

99.74

126.32

3/6/84

98.70

¥

100.00

¥

100.00

¥

100.00

¥

10/6/84

88.45

15.48

97.76

42.00

97.75

56.00

97.43

67.06

17/6/84

85.93

17.72

99.60

56.00

100.00

¥

100.00

¥

24/6/84

100.00

¥

100.00

¥

99.86

84.00

100.00

¥

1/7/84

81.18

24.77

76.51

168.00

76.43

168.00

69.50

33.50

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Table 3. Remote Site Usage

University of London Computer Centre

   

CDC 7600

   

Period

Units

Jobs

%Units

%Jobs

4/7/83-31/7/83

14033

382

7.88

1.97

1/8/83-28/8/83

21405

323

14.65

1.77

29/8/83-25/9/83

14369

365

13.42

2.21

26/9/83-23/10/83

6591

154

6.66

1.02

24/10/83-20/11/83

2986

294

3.11

1.79

21/11/83-18/12/83

1629

203

2.06

1.19

19/12/83-15/1/84

2334

149

3.38

2.10

16/1/84-1/2/84

1009

117

1.20

1.37

   

Cray

   

Period

Units

Jobs

%Units

%Jobs

4/7/83-31/7/83

23.9

700

19.8

14.8

1/8/83-28/8/83

7.5

438

7.6

8.7

29/8/83-25/9/83

4.8

163

4.5

3.4

26/9/83-23/10/83

11.3

229

11.6

3.9

24/10/83-20/11/83

8.1

262

7.7

3.8

21/11/83-18/12/83

10.6

254

5.4

2.6

19/12/83-15/1/84

6.5

140

2.1

2.1

16/1/84-1/2/84

6.8

222

2.9

1.8

13/2/84-11/3/84

13.0

606

6.1

4.2

12/3/84-8/4/84

21.9

557

8.9

4.3

9/4/94-6/5/84

18.9

211

8.9

1.9

7/5/84-3/6/84

25.3

292

10.0

2.3

4/6/84-1/7/84

16.4

213

5.2

1.4

University of Manchester Regional Computer Centre

   

Cray

   

Period

Units

Jobs

%Units

%Jobs

4/7/83-31/7/83

106517

631

15.58

5.69

1/8/83-28/8/83

141636

724

20.54

7.08

29/8/83-25/9/83

102528

474

13.80

4.53

26/9/83-23/10/83

122137

633

17.41

5.40

24/10/83-20/11/83

89239

566

14.76

.555

21/11/83-18/12/83

97098

605

16.41

5.24

19/12/83-15/1/84

78389

325

19.29

5.44

16/1/84-1/2/84

71892

455

14.36

4.01

13/2/84-11/3/84

65583

485

14.03

4.27

12/3/84-8/4/84

72666

556

14.55

6.23

9/4/94-6/5/84

58661

519

12.96

5.82

7/5/84-3/6/84

90679

557

20.30

6.63

4/6/84-1/7/84

114403

471

22.50

6.41

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